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"Windows" redirects here. For the part of a building, see window. For other uses, see Windows (disambiguation).

Screenshot of Windows 10 (Fall Creators Update, version 1709), showing the Action Center and Start Menu

DeveloperMicrosoft
Source modelClosed / shared source
Initial releaseNovember 20, 1985; 32 years ago (1985-11-20), as Windows 1.0
Latest release1709 (10.0.16299.251) (March 5, 2018; 5 days ago (2018-03-05))[±]
Latest previewRS4 (10.0.17115) (March 6, 2018; 4 days ago (2018-03-06))[±]
Marketing targetPersonal computing
Available in137 languages[1]
Update method
Package managerWindows Installer (.msi), Windows Store (.appx)[2]
PlatformsARM, IA-32, Itanium, x86-64, DEC Alpha, MIPS, PowerPC
Kernel type
Default user interfaceWindows shell
LicenseProprietarycommercial software
Official websitewindows.microsoft.com

Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphicaloperating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows NT and Windows Embedded; these may encompass subfamilies, e.g. Windows Embedded Compact (Windows CE) or Windows Server. Defunct Windows families include Windows 9x, Windows Mobile and Windows Phone.

Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs).[3] Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer (PC) market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh (eventually settled in court in Microsoft's favor in 1993). On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android,[4] because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones. In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25% that of Android devices sold. This comparison however may not be fully relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows (that are comparable to competitors) show one third market share, similar to for end user use.

As of December 2017[update], the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets, smartphones and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2016. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox Onevideo game console.[5]

Genealogy

By marketing role

Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry. As of 2014, the following Windows families are being actively developed:

  • Windows NT: Started as a family of operating system with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released almost at the same time and share the same kernel. It is almost impossible for someone unfamiliar with the subject to identify the members of this family by name because they do not adhere to any specific rule; e.g. Windows 7 and Windows 8.1 are members of this family but Windows 3.1 is not.
  • Windows Embedded: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device that was too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. Eventually, however, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which also consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.[6]

The following Windows families are no longer being developed:

Version history

Main article: History of Microsoft Windows

See also: List of Microsoft Windows versions

The term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoftoperating system products. These products are generally categorized as follows:

Early versions

Main articles: Windows 1.0, Windows 2.0, and Windows 2.1x

The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager". It was announced in November 1983 (after the Apple Lisa, but before the Macintosh) under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.[8] Windows 1.0 was to compete with Apple's operating system, but achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system; rather, it extends MS-DOS. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Calendar, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Clock, Control Panel, Notepad, Paint, Reversi, Terminal and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows.

Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, and was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user interface and memory management.[9] Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights.[10][11] Windows 2.0 also introduced more sophisticated keyboard shortcuts and could make use of expanded memory.

Windows 2.1 was released in two different versions: Windows/286 and Windows/386. Windows/386 uses the virtual 8086 mode of the Intel 80386 to multitask several DOS programs and the paged memory model to emulate expanded memory using available extended memory. Windows/286, in spite of its name, runs on both Intel 8086 and Intel 80286 processors. It runs in real mode but can make use of the high memory area.[citation needed]

In addition to full Windows-packages, there were runtime-only versions that shipped with early Windows software from third parties and made it possible to run their Windows software on MS-DOS and without the full Windows feature set.

The early versions of Windows are often thought of as graphical shells, mostly because they ran on top of MS-DOS and use it for file system services.[12] However, even the earliest Windows versions already assumed many typical operating system functions; notably, having their own executable file format and providing their own device drivers (timer, graphics, printer, mouse, keyboard and sound). Unlike MS-DOS, Windows allowed users to execute multiple graphical applications at the same time, through cooperative multitasking. Windows implemented an elaborate, segment-based, software virtual memory scheme, which allows it to run applications larger than available memory: code segments and resources are swapped in and thrown away when memory became scarce; data segments moved in memory when a given application had relinquished processor control.

Windows 3.x

Main articles: Windows 3.0 and Windows 3.1x

Windows 3.0, released in 1990, improved the design, mostly because of virtual memory and loadable virtual device drivers (VxDs) that allow Windows to share arbitrary devices between multi-tasked DOS applications.[citation needed] Windows 3.0 applications can run in protected mode, which gives them access to several megabytes of memory without the obligation to participate in the software virtual memory scheme. They run inside the same address space, where the segmented memory provides a degree of protection. Windows 3.0 also featured improvements to the user interface. Microsoft rewrote critical operations from C into assembly. Windows 3.0 is the first Microsoft Windows version to achieve broad commercial success, selling 2 million copies in the first six months.[13][14]

Windows 3.1, made generally available on March 1, 1992, featured a facelift. In August 1993, Windows for Workgroups, a special version with integrated peer-to-peer networking features and a version number of 3.11, was released. It was sold along Windows 3.1. Support for Windows 3.1 ended on December 31, 2001.[15]

Windows 3.2, released 1994, is an updated version of the Chinese version of Windows 3.1.[16] The update was limited to this language version, as it fixed only issues related to the complex writing system of the Chinese language.[17] Windows 3.2 was generally sold by computer manufacturers with a ten-disk version of MS-DOS that also had Simplified Chinese characters in basic output and some translated utilities.

Windows 9x

Main article: Windows 9x

The next major consumer-oriented release of Windows, Windows 95, was released on August 24, 1995. While still remaining MS-DOS-based, Windows 95 introduced support for native 32-bit applications, plug and play hardware, preemptive multitasking, long file names of up to 255 characters, and provided increased stability over its predecessors. Windows 95 also introduced a redesigned, object oriented user interface, replacing the previous Program Manager with the Start menu, taskbar, and Windows Explorershell. Windows 95 was a major commercial success for Microsoft; Ina Fried of CNET remarked that "by the time Windows 95 was finally ushered off the market in 2001, it had become a fixture on computer desktops around the world."[18] Microsoft published four OEM Service Releases (OSR) of Windows 95, each of which was roughly equivalent to a service pack. The first OSR of Windows 95 was also the first version of Windows to be bundled with Microsoft's web browser, Internet Explorer.[19] Mainstream support for Windows 95 ended on December 31, 2000, and extended support for Windows 95 ended on December 31, 2001.[20]

Windows 95 was followed up with the release of Windows 98 on June 25, 1998, which introduced the Windows Driver Model, support for USB composite devices, support for ACPI, hibernation, and support for multi-monitor configurations. Windows 98 also included integration with Internet Explorer 4 through Active Desktop and other aspects of the Windows Desktop Update (a series of enhancements to the Explorer shell which were also made available for Windows 95). In May 1999, Microsoft released Windows 98 Second Edition, an updated version of Windows 98. Windows 98 SE added Internet Explorer 5.0 and Windows Media Player 6.2 amongst other upgrades. Mainstream support for Windows 98 ended on June 30, 2002, and extended support for Windows 98 ended on July 11, 2006.[21]

On September 14, 2000, Microsoft released Windows ME (Millennium Edition), the last DOS-based version of Windows. Windows ME incorporated visual interface enhancements from its Windows NT-based counterpart Windows 2000, had faster boot times than previous versions (which however, required the removal of the ability to access a real mode DOS environment, removing compatibility with some older programs),[22] expanded multimedia functionality (including Windows Media Player 7, Windows Movie Maker, and the Windows Image Acquisition framework for retrieving images from scanners and digital cameras), additional system utilities such as System File Protection and System Restore, and updated home networking tools.[23] However, Windows ME was faced with criticism for its speed and instability, along with hardware compatibility issues and its removal of real mode DOS support. PC World considered Windows ME to be one of the worst operating systems Microsoft had ever released, and the 4th worst tech product of all time.[7]

Windows NT

Main article: Windows NT

Early versions

In November 1988, a new development team within Microsoft (which included former Digital Equipment Corporation developers Dave Cutler and Mark Lucovsky) began work on a revamped version of IBM and Microsoft's OS/2 operating system known as "NT OS/2". NT OS/2 was intended to be a secure, multi-user operating system with POSIX compatibility and a modular, portablekernel with preemptive multitasking and support for multiple processor architectures. However, following the successful release of Windows 3.0, the NT development team decided to rework the project to use an extended 32-bit port of the Windows API known as Win32 instead of those of OS/2. Win32 maintained a similar structure to the Windows APIs (allowing existing Windows applications to easily be ported to the platform), but also supported the capabilities of the existing NT kernel. Following its approval by Microsoft's staff, development continued on what was now Windows NT, the first 32-bit version of Windows. However, IBM objected to the changes, and ultimately continued OS/2 development on its own.[25]

The first release of the resulting operating system, Windows NT 3.1 (named to associate it with Windows 3.1) was released in July 1993, with versions for desktop workstations and servers. Windows NT 3.5 was released in September 1994, focusing on performance improvements and support for Novell's NetWare, and was followed up by Windows NT 3.51 in May 1995, which included additional improvements and support for the PowerPC architecture. Windows NT 4.0 was released in June 1996, introducing the redesigned interface of Windows 95 to the NT series. On February 17, 2000, Microsoft released Windows 2000, a successor to NT 4.0. The Windows NT name was dropped at this point in order to put a greater focus on the Windows brand.[25]

Windows XP

Main article: Windows XP

The next major version of Windows NT, Windows XP, was released on October 25, 2001. The introduction of Windows XP aimed to unify the consumer-oriented Windows 9x series with the architecture introduced by Windows NT, a change which Microsoft promised would provide better performance over its DOS-based predecessors. Windows XP would also introduce a redesigned user interface (including an updated Start menu and a "task-oriented" Windows Explorer), streamlined multimedia and networking features, Internet Explorer 6, integration with Microsoft's .NET Passport services, modes to help provide compatibility with software designed for previous versions of Windows, and Remote Assistance functionality.[26]

At retail, Windows XP was now marketed in two main editions: the "Home" edition was targeted towards consumers, while the "Professional" edition was targeted towards business environments and power users, and included additional security and networking features. Home and Professional were later accompanied by the "Media Center" edition (designed for home theater PCs, with an emphasis on support for DVD playback, TV tuner cards, DVR functionality, and remote controls), and the "Tablet PC" edition (designed for mobile devices meeting its specifications for a tablet computer, with support for stylus pen input and additional pen-enabled applications).[27][28][29] Mainstream support for Windows XP ended on April 14, 2009. Extended support ended on April 8, 2014.[30]

After Windows 2000, Microsoft also changed its release schedules for server operating systems; the server counterpart of Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, was released in April 2003.[25] It was followed in December 2005, by Windows Server 2003 R2.

Windows Vista

Main article: Windows Vista

After a lengthy development process, Windows Vista was released on November 30, 2006, for volume licensing and January 30, 2007, for consumers. It contained a number of new features, from a redesigned shell and user interface to significant technical changes, with a particular focus on security features. It was available in a number of different editions, and has been subject to some criticism, such as drop of performance, longer boot time, criticism of new UAC, and stricter license agreement. Vista's server counterpart, Windows Server 2008 was released in early 2008.

Windows 7

Main article: Windows 7

On July 22, 2009, Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 were released as RTM (release to manufacturing) while the former was released to the public 3 months later on October 22, 2009. Unlike its predecessor, Windows Vista, which introduced a large number of new features, Windows 7 was intended to be a more focused, incremental upgrade to the Windows line, with the goal of being compatible with applications and hardware with which Windows Vista was already compatible.[31] Windows 7 has multi-touch support, a redesigned Windows shell with an updated taskbar, a home networking system called HomeGroup,[32] and performance improvements.

Windows 8 and 8.1

Main articles: Windows 8 and Windows 8.1

Windows 8, the successor to Windows 7, was released generally on October 26, 2012. A number of significant changes were made on Windows 8, including the introduction of a user interface based around Microsoft's Metro design language with optimizations for touch-based devices such as tablets and all-in-one PCs. These changes include the Start screen, which uses large tiles that are more convenient for touch interactions and allow for the display of continually updated information, and a new class of apps which are designed primarily for use on touch-based devices. Other changes include increased integration with cloud services and other online platforms (such as social networks and Microsoft's own OneDrive (formerly SkyDrive) and Xbox Live services), the Windows Store service for software distribution, and a new variant known as Windows RT for use on devices that utilize the ARM architecture.[33][34][35][36][37][38] An update to Windows 8, called Windows 8.1,[39] was released on October 17, 2013, and includes features such as new live tile sizes, deeper OneDrive integration, and many other revisions. Windows 8 and Windows 8.1 has been subject to some criticism, such as removal of the Start menu.

Windows 10

Main article: Windows 10

On September 30, 2014, Microsoft announced Windows 10 as the successor to Windows 8.1. It was released on July 29, 2015, and addresses shortcomings in the user interface first introduced with Windows 8. Changes include the return of the Start Menu, a virtual desktop system, and the ability to run Windows Store apps within windows on the desktop rather than in full-screen mode. Windows 10 is said to be available to update from qualified Windows 7 with SP1 and Windows 8.1 computers from the Get Windows 10 Application (for Windows 7, Windows 8.1) or Windows Update (Windows 7).[40]

On November 12, 2015, an update to Windows 10, version 1511, was released.[41] This update can be activated with a Windows 7, 8 or 8.1 product key as well as Windows 10 product keys.[42] Features include new icons and right-click context menus, default printer management, four times as many tiles allowed in the Start menu, Find My Device, and Edge updates.[42]

In February 2017, Microsoft announced the migration of its Windows source code repository from Perforce to Git. This migration involved 3.5 million separate files in a 300 gigabyte repository.[43] By May 2017, 90 percent of its engineering team now uses Git, in about 8500 commits and 1760 Windows builds per day.[43]

Multilingual support

Multilingual support is built into Windows. The language for both the keyboard and the interface can be changed through the Region and Language Control Panel. Components for all supported input languages, such as Input Method Editors, are automatically installed during Windows installation (in Windows XP and earlier, files for East Asian languages, such as Chinese, and right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic, may need to be installed separately, also from the said Control Panel). Third-party IMEs may also be installed if a user feels that the provided one is insufficient for their needs.

Interface languages for the operating system are free for download, but some languages are limited to certain editions of Windows. Language Interface Packs (LIPs) are redistributable and may be downloaded from Microsoft's Download Center and installed for any edition of Windows (XP or later) – they translate most, but not all, of the Windows interface, and require a certain base language (the language which Windows originally shipped with). This is used for most languages in emerging markets. Full Language Packs, which translates the complete operating system, are only available for specific editions of Windows (Ultimate and Enterprise editions of Windows Vista and 7, and all editions of Windows 8, 8.1 and RT except Single Language). They do not require a specific base language, and are commonly used for more popular languages such as French or Chinese. These languages cannot be downloaded through the Download Center, but available as optional updates through the Windows Update service (except Windows 8).

The interface language of installed applications are not affected by changes in the Windows interface language. Availability of languages depends on the application developers themselves.

Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012 introduces a new Language Control Panel where both the interface and input languages can be simultaneously changed, and language packs, regardless of type, can be downloaded from a central location. The PC Settings app in Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012 R2 also includes a counterpart settings page for this. Changing the interface language also changes the language of preinstalled Windows Store apps (such as Mail, Maps and News) and certain other Microsoft-developed apps (such as Remote Desktop). The above limitations for language packs are however still in effect, except that full language packs can be installed for any edition except Single Language, which caters to emerging markets.

Platform support

Windows NT included support for several different platforms before the x86-based personal computer became dominant in the professional world. Windows NT 4.0 and its predecessors supported PowerPC, DEC Alpha and MIPS R4000. (Although some these platforms implement 64-bit computing, the operating system treated them as 32-bit.) However, Windows 2000, the successor of Windows NT 4.0, dropped support for all platforms except the third generation x86 (known as IA-32) or newer in 32-bit mode. The client line of Windows NT family still runs on IA-32, although the Windows Server line has ceased supporting this platform with the release of Windows Server 2008 R2.

With the introduction of the Intel Itanium architecture (IA-64), Microsoft released new versions of Windows to support it. Itanium versions of Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 were released at the same time as their mainstream x86 counterparts. Windows XP 64-Bit Edition, released in 2005, is the last Windows client operating systems to support Itanium. Windows Server line continues to support this platform until Windows Server 2012; Windows Server 2008 R2 is the last Windows operating system to support Itanium architecture.

On April 25, 2005, Microsoft released Windows XP Professional x64 Edition and Windows Server 2003 x64 Editions to support the x86-64 (or simply x64), the eighth generation of x86 architecture. Windows Vista was the first client version of Windows NT to be released simultaneously in IA-32 and x64 editions. x64 is still supported.

An edition of Windows 8 known as Windows RT was specifically created for computers with ARM architecture and while ARM is still used for Windows smartphones with Windows 10, tablets with Windows RT will not be updated.

Windows CE

Main articles: Windows CE and Windows Phone

Windows CE (officially known as Windows Embedded Compact), is an edition of Windows that runs on minimalistic computers, like satellite navigation systems and some mobile phones. Windows Embedded Compact is based on its own dedicated kernel, dubbed Windows CE kernel. Microsoft licenses Windows CE to OEMs and device makers. The OEMs and device makers can modify and create their own user interfaces and experiences, while Windows CE provides the technical foundation to do so.

Windows CE was used in the Dreamcast along with Sega's own proprietary OS for the console. Windows CE was the core from which Windows Mobile was derived. Its successor, Windows Phone 7, was based on components from both Windows CE 6.0 R3 and Windows CE 7.0. Windows Phone 8 however, is based on the same NT-kernel as Windows 8.

Windows Embedded Compact is not to be confused with Windows XP Embedded or Windows NT 4.0 Embedded, modular editions of Windows based on Windows NT kernel.

Xbox OS

Main articles: Xbox One system software and Xbox 360 system software

Xbox OS is an unofficial name given to the version of Windows that runs on the Xbox One.[44] It is a more specific implementation with an emphasis on virtualization (using Hyper-V) as it is three operating systems running at once, consisting of the core operating system, a second implemented for games and a more Windows-like environment for applications.[45] Microsoft updates Xbox One's OS every month, and these updates can be downloaded from the Xbox Live service to the Xbox and subsequently installed, or by using offline recovery images downloaded via a PC.[46] The Windows 10-based Core had replaced the Windows 8-based one in this update, and the new system is sometimes referred to as "Windows 10 on Xbox One" or "OneCore".[47][48] Xbox One's system also allows backward compatibility with Xbox 360,[49] and the Xbox 360's system is backwards compatible with the original Xbox.[50]

Version control system

In 2017 Microsoft announced that it would start using Git, an open source version control system created by Linus Torvalds. Microsoft has previously used a proprietary version control system called "Source Depot". Microsoft began to integrate Git into Team Foundation Server in 2013, but Windows continued to rely to Source Depot. However, this decision came with some complexity. The Windows codebase is not especially well suited to the decentralized nature of Linux development that Git was originally created to manage. Each Git repository contains a complete history of all the files, which proved unworkable for Windows developers because cloning the repository takes several hours. Microsoft has been working on a new project called the Git Virtual File system (GVFS) to address these challenges.[51]

Timeline of releases

Table of Windows versions

Legend:

Old version

Older version, still supported

Latest version

Latest preview version

Future release

Product nameLatest versionGeneral availability dateCodenameSupport until[52]Latest version of
MainstreamExtendedIEDirectXEdge
Old version, no longer supported:Windows 1.01.01November 20, 1985Interface ManagerDecember 31, 2001N/AN/AN/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows 2.02.03December 9, 1987N/ADecember 31, 2001N/AN/AN/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows 2.12.11May 27, 1988N/ADecember 31, 2001N/AN/AN/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows 3.03.0May 22, 1990N/ADecember 31, 2001N/AN/AN/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows 3.13.1April 6, 1992JanusDecember 31, 20015N/AN/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows For Workgroups 3.13.1October 1992Sparta, WinballDecember 31, 20015N/AN/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows NT 3.1NT 3.1.528July 27, 1993N/ADecember 31, 20015N/AN/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows For Workgroups 3.113.11August 11, 1993Sparta, WinballDecember 31, 20015N/AN/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows 3.23.2November 22, 1993N/ADecember 31, 20015N/AN/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows NT 3.5NT 3.5.807September 21, 1994DaytonaDecember 31, 20015N/AN/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows NT 3.51NT 3.51.1057May 30, 1995N/ADecember 31, 20015N/AN/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows 954.0.950August 24, 1995Chicago, 4.0December 31, 2000December 31, 20015.56.1N/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows NT 4.0NT 4.0.1381July 31, 1996CairoJune 30, 2002June 30, 20046N/AN/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows 984.10.1998June 25, 1998Memphis, 97, 4.1June 30, 2002July 11, 200666.1N/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows 98 SE4.10.2222May 5, 1999N/AJune 30, 2002July 11, 200666.1N/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows 2000NT 5.0.2195February 17, 2000N/AJune 30, 2005July 13, 20106N/AN/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows ME4.90.3000September 14, 2000Millenium, 4.9December 31, 2003July 11, 200669.0cN/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows XPNT 5.1.2600October 25, 2001WhistlerApril 14, 2009April 8, 201489.0cN/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows XP 64-bit EditionNT 5.2.3790March 28, 2003N/AApril 14, 2009April 8, 201469.0cN/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows Server 2003NT 5.2.3790April 24, 2003N/AJuly 13, 2010July 14, 201589.0cN/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows XP Professional x64 EditionNT 5.2.3790April 25, 2005N/AApril 14, 2009April 8, 201489.0cN/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCsNT 5.1.2600July 8, 2006Eiger, MönchApril 14, 2009April 8, 201489.0cN/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows VistaNT 6.0.6002January 30, 2007LonghornApril 10, 2012April 11, 2017911N/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows Home ServerNT 5.2.4500November 4, 2007QuattroJanuary 8, 201389.0cN/A
Older version, yet still supported:Windows Server 2008NT 6.0.6002February 27, 2008Longhorn ServerJanuary 13, 2015January 14, 2020911N/A
Older version, yet still supported:Windows 7NT 6.1.7601October 22, 2009Blackcomb, ViennaJanuary 13, 2015January 14, 20201111N/A
Older version, yet still supported:Windows Server 2008 R2NT 6.1.7601October 22, 2009N/AJanuary 13, 2015January 14, 20201111N/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows Home Server 2011NT 6.1.8400April 6, 2011VailApril 12, 2016911N/A
Older version, yet still supported:Windows Server 2012NT 6.2.9200September 4, 2012N/AOctober 9, 2018October 10, 20231011.1N/A
Old version, no longer supported:Windows 8NT 6.2.9200October 26, 2012N/AJanuary 12, 20161011.1N/A
Older version, yet still supported:Windows 8.1NT 6.3.9600October 17, 2013BlueJanuary 9, 2018January 10, 20231111.2N/A
Older version, yet still supported:Windows Server 2012 R2NT 6.3.9600October 18, 2013Server BlueOctober 9, 2018October 10, 20231111.2N/A
Current stable version:Windows 10NT 10.0.14393July 29, 2015Threshold, RedstoneOctober 13, 2020October 14, 2025111225
Current stable version:Windows Server 2016NT 10.0.14393October 12, 2016N/AJanuary 11, 2022January 12, 2027111225

Windows timeline: Bar chart

22 Jump Street is a 2014 American actioncomedy film directed by Phil Lord and Christopher Miller, written by Jonah Hill, Michael Bacall, Oren Uziel and Rodney Rothman and produced by and starring Hill and Channing Tatum. It is the sequel to the 2012 film 21 Jump Street, based on the television series of the same name. The film was released on June 13, 2014, by Columbia Pictures and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. The film received positive reviews and earned over $331 million at the box office.

A crossover with Men in Black, MIB 23, is in development, with Lord and Miller acting as producers,[5][6] and James Bobin acting as the director.[7][8] The crossover will replace a 23 Jump Street film.

Plot[edit]

Two years following their success in the 21 Jump Street program, Schmidt (Jonah Hill) and Jenko (Channing Tatum) are back on the streets chasing narcotics. However, after failing in the pursuit of a group of drug dealers led by Ghost (Peter Stormare), Deputy Chief Hardy (Nick Offerman) puts the duo back on the program to work for Captain Dickson (Ice Cube) – now located across the street at 22 Jump Street. Their assignment is to go undercover as college students and locate the supplier of a drug known as "WHY-PHY" (Work Hard? Yes, Play Hard? Yes) which killed a student photographed buying it on campus from a dealer.

At college, Jenko quickly makes friends with a pair of jocks named Zook (Wyatt Russell) and Rooster (Jimmy Tatro), the latter being a prime suspect of the investigation. Jenko starts attending parties with the jocks who do not take as kindly to Schmidt. Meanwhile, Schmidt gets the attention of an art student, Maya (Amber Stevens), by feigning an interest in slam poetry. The two sleep together, to the disapproval of Maya's roommate Mercedes (Jillian Bell), and Schmidt later finds that Maya is the daughter of Captain Dickson, whom Schmidt bragged to about "getting laid", much to Dickson's fury. Despite sleeping together, Maya tells Schmidt not to take it seriously, and he starts to feel left out as Jenko bonds more and more with Zook who encourages him to join the football team.

When Schmidt and Jenko are unable to identify the dealer, they visit Mr. Walters (Rob Riggle) and Eric (Dave Franco) in jail for advice. After confessing the two are having regular intercourse, Walters points out a unique tattoo on the arm of the dealer in the photograph. Whilst hanging out with Zook and Rooster, Jenko notices that Rooster does not have the tattoo but sees it on Zook's arm. Schmidt and Jenko are invited to join the fraternity led by the jocks but Schmidt refuses, furthering the tension between the two as Jenko passes their requirements. They later realize that Zook is not the dealer but rather another customer. Soon afterwards, they find Ghost and his men on campus, but Ghost again evades them. Jenko reveals to Schmidt that he has been offered a football scholarship with Zook and is uncertain about his future as a police officer. Afterwards, Schmidt reveals his true identity and moves out of the dorm, angering Maya.

Spring break arrives and Schmidt goes after Ghost. He is joined by Jenko, so the two can have one final mission together. The pair head to the beach where Ghost is likely to be dealing WHY-PHY. Inside a bar, they find Mercedes, who is Ghost's daughter, giving instructions to other dealers. The pair, backed up by Dickson and the rest of Jump Street, ambush the meeting. Ghost flees, while Mercedes is knocked out by Schmidt. While pursuing Ghost, Jenko is then shot in the shoulder. Ghost attempts to escape in a helicopter; Schmidt and Jenko manage to jump across to it, but they fall into the sea due to Jenko's injured arm. However, Jenko is able to throw a grenade into the helicopter. Ghost celebrates his victory prematurely while the grenade explodes, sending the totaled remains into the sea. Jenko tells Schmidt that he still wants to be a police officer as he believes their differences help their partnership, and the two reconcile in front of a cheering crowd. Dickson approaches them claiming to have a new mission undercover at a med school.

During the credits, Jenko and Schmidt go on to a variety of undercover missions to different schools, which are portrayed as fictional sequels, an animated series, and a toy line. One mission features Detective Booker (Richard Grieco) while another sees the return of Ghost, who survived the helicopter explosion. In a post-credits scene, Walters reveals to Eric that he is late, implying he is pregnant.

Cast[edit]

Production[edit]

On March 17, 2012, Sony Pictures announced that it was pursuing a sequel to 21 Jump Street, signing a deal that would see Jonah Hill and Michael Bacall return to write a script treatment that would be again developed by Bacall.[17] The film was originally scheduled to be released on June 6, 2014.[18] On May 8, 2013, it was announced that the film would be pushed back a week until June 13, 2014.[19] In June 2013, it was announced the film would be titled 22 Jump Street.[20] In July 2013, Phil Lord and Christopher Miller confirmed they would return to direct the film.[21] On September 6, 2013, Amber Stevens joined the cast of the film.[12] On September 27, 2013, Kurt Russell mentioned that his son Wyatt turned down a role for The Hunger Games sequels to star in 22 Jump Street.[22]Principal photography began on September 28, 2013, in New Orleans, Louisiana, with shots in San Juan, Puerto Rico as well (acting for the shots in the movie as the spring break in "Puerto Mexico") and ended on December 15, 2013.[23][24]

The end titles, featuring satirical concepts for an ongoing series of Jump Street films and merchandise, were designed by the studio Alma Mater.[25]

Music[edit]

See also: 22 Jump Street (Original Motion Picture Score)

The score for the film was composed by Mark Mothersbaugh and was released by La-La Land Records on a double disc album, limited to 2,000 copies, in September 2014. The second disc of the album also contains the score from the film's predecessor, 21 Jump Street, composed by Mothersbaugh as well.[26]

Release[edit]

Box office[edit]

22 Jump Street grossed $191.7 million in North America and $139.4 million in other countries for a worldwide total of $331.3 million, against a budget of $84.5 million.[4][2][27] It outgrossed the first Jump Street film, which made a total of $201.6 million during its theatrical run.[28]

22 Jump Street grossed $5.5 million at its early Thursday night showings.[29] On its opening day it grossed $25 million, including the early Thursday showings.[30] In North America, the film opened at number one in its first weekend, with $57.1 million.[31] In its second weekend, the film dropped to number two, grossing an additional $27.5 million.[32] In its third weekend, the film stayed at number two, grossing $15.8 million.[33] In its fourth weekend, the film dropped to number three, grossing $9.8 million.[34]

Critical response[edit]

On Rotten Tomatoes the film has an approval rating of 84% based on 206 reviews, with an average rating of 7/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "Boasting even more of the bromantic chemistry between its stars -- and even more of the goofy, good-natured humor that made its predecessor so much fun – 22 Jump Street is the rare sequel that improves upon the original."[35] On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 71 out of 100, based on 46 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[36] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A−" on an A+ to F scale.[37]

Inkoo Kang of The Wrap gave the film a positive review, saying "If 22 isn't as trim and tight as its predecessor, it's certainly smarter and more heartfelt. Whether this sequel is better than the original is up for debate, but the franchise has definitely grown up."[38] Chris Nashawaty of Entertainment Weekly gave the film a B−, saying "Hill's neurotic-motormouth act and Tatum's lovable-lunkhead shtick still shoot giddy sparks."[39] Claudia Puig of USA Today gave the film three out of four stars, saying "This is the ultimate meta movie. The repetition is exactly the point."[40] Kyle Smith of the New York Post gave the film two out of four stars, saying "What's the difference between 21 Jump Street and 22 Jump Street? Same as the difference between getting a 21 and a 22 at blackjack."[41] Jocelyn Noveck of the Associated Press gave the film three out of four stars, saying "Hill and Tatum ... have a Laurel-and-Hardy-like implausible chemistry that keeps you laughing pretty much no matter what they're doing."[42] Bill Goodykoontz of The Arizona Republic gave the film four out of five stars, saying "What makes it all work is the chemistry between Hill and Tatum, which in turn, of course, is a rich source of the film's humor."[43] Michael Phillips of the Chicago Tribune gave the film three out of four stars, saying "The peculiar sweetness of 21 Jump Street has taken a hiatus in 22 Jump Street, a brazen sequel that's both slightly disappointing and a reliable, often riotous 'laffer' in the old Variety trade-magazine parlance."[44]Peter Travers of Rolling Stone gave the film three out of four stars, saying "22 Jump Street is damn funny, sometimes outrageously so. It laughs at its own dumb logic and invites us in on the fun."[45] Joe Neumaier of the New York Daily News gave the film three out of four stars, saying "Like its stars, Jump Street gets extra credit for getting by on charm while sticking to the rules."[46] Ian Buckwalter of NPR gave the film a seven out of ten, saying "What separates 22 Jump Street from sequel mediocrity is that everyone's in on the joke."[47]

Sean Fitz-Gerald of The Denver Post gave the film three out of four stars, saying "Jump Street knows you know about the predictability and cheapness of sequels and rip-offs – and in this case, to avoid the downfalls of other summer comedy sagas, embracing that problem might have been the best move for this absurd, unique franchise."[48] Betsy Sharkey of the Los Angeles Times gave the film a positive review, saying "This sequel's spoof of its predecessor's riff on the original 1980s-era buddy-cop TV show coalesces into a raucous, raunchy, irreverent, imperfect riot."[49] Ty Burr of The Boston Globe gave the film three and a half stars out of four, saying "Lord and Miller are on a roll, and there may be no better moviemakers at playing to our modern need for irony – at giving us the entertainment we crave while acknowledging our distrust of it."[50] Rene Rodriguez of the Miami Herald gave the film three out of four stars, saying "There's something going on at the edges of the frame in practically every scene of 22 Jump Street, a testament to the care and attention to detail directors Lord and Miller bring to this potentially silly material."[51] Stephen Whitty of the Newark Star-Ledger gave the film two and a half stars out of four, saying "At what point is sarcasm just a cheap substitute for wit? Exactly when does joking about how all sequels are just lame, repetitive cash-grabs start to suggest that maybe yours is, too? Actually, in this case, about 40 minutes in."[52] Bill Zwecker of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film three out of four stars, saying "Though I enjoyed enormously this latest offering in the rebooted Jump franchise, it's the effortless, unexpected bromance/partnership between the two unlikely undercover cops is what makes this franchise work."[53]

James Berardinelli of ReelViews gave the film two and a half stars out of four, saying "There are times when 22 Jump Street is borderline brilliant. Unfortunately, those instances are outnumbered by segments that don't work for one reason or another."[54] Jaime N. Christley of Slant Magazine gave the film two out of four stars, saying "As funny and batshit insane as the movie often is, the fact that 22 Jump Street knows it's a tiresome sequel doesn't save it from being a tiresome sequel, even as Lord and Miller struggle to conceal the bitter pill of convention in the sweet tapioca pudding of wall-to-wall jokes."[55] Scott Tobias of The Dissolve gave the film three and a half stars out of five, saying "22 Jump Street squeezes every last drop of comic inspiration it can get from Tatum and Hill, as well as the very notion of a sequel to such a superfluous enterprise."[56] Steve Persall of the Tampa Bay Times gave the film a B, saying "22 Jump Street is a mixed bag of clever spoofery and miscalculated outrageousness. The unveiled homoeroticism of practically all interaction between Jenko and Schmidt is amusing to the point when it isn't."[57] Ann Hornaday of The Washington Post gave the film three out of five stars, saying "This is a sequel that wears its well-worn formula, mocking inside jokes and gleeful taste for overkill proudly, flying the high-lowbrow flag for audiences that like their comedy just smart enough to be not-too-dumb."[58] Scott Foundas of Variety gave the film a positive review, saying "22 Jump Street hits far more often than it misses, and even when it misses by a mile, the effort is so delightfully zany that it's hard not to give Lord and Miller an 'A' for effort."[59]

Peter Howell of the Toronto Star gave the film three out of four stars, saying "If it seemed Channing Tatum and Jonah Hill couldn't possibly exceed their over-the-top buddy cop antics of 21 Jump Street, you lost that bet."[60] Tom Long of The Detroit News gave the film a B-, saying "There's no real reason 22 Jump Street should work. Yet it does."[61] Joe Williams of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch gave the film three out of four stars, saying "A self-aware sequel has to hop over hurdles to keep from swallowing its own tail, but the sharp writing and tag-team antics lift 22 Jump Street to a high level."[62] Mick LaSalle of the San Francisco Chronicle gave the film three out of four stars, saying "22 Jump Street is exactly what comedy is today. It's coarse, free-flowing and playful."[63] In 2016, James Charisma of Playboy ranked the film #13 on a list of 15 Sequels That Are Way Better Than The Originals.[64]

Home media[edit]

22 Jump Street was released on DVD and Blu-ray on November 18, 2014.[65]

Sequel and spin-offs[edit]

On September 10, 2014, 23 Jump Street was confirmed.[66] Channing Tatum had yet to sign on to the project, stating, "I don't know if that joke works three times, so we'll see."[67] On August 7, 2015, it was revealed that Lord and Miller would not direct the film, but instead write and produce. A first draft of the film's script has been completed.[68] On December 10, 2014, it was revealed that Sony was planning a crossover between Men in Black and Jump Street. The news was leaked after Sony's system was hacked[69] and then confirmed by the directors of the films, Chris Miller and Phil Lord, during an interview about it.[70][6]James Bobin was announced as the director in March 2016.[7][8] The title of the crossover was later revealed as MIB 23, and it was revealed that the crossover would replace a 23 Jump Street film.

In early 2015, a female-driven 21 Jump Street film was rumored to also be in the works. In December 2016, Rodney Rothman was confirmed to make his directorial debut on the film.[71][72]

References[edit]

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