For the initial submission, authors do not need to follow the BOR manuscript style and may submit all components of the manuscript for review as long as the text is double-spaced and labelled with line numbers. Please note that specific requirements for BOR submission, including style and format, must be followed for all revised manuscripts.
All manuscripts are submitted and reviewed via the journal's Editorial Manager system. New authors should create an account prior to submitting a manuscript for consideration. Questions about submitting to the journal should be sent to the editorial office at firstname.lastname@example.org.
All submissions to the journal are initially reviewed by the editors to assess appropriateness for the journal. Manuscripts viewed as potentially suitable for the journal are immediately sent for peer review, usually by two independent reviewers. However, if deemed not relevant to the purview of Biology of Reproduction or of high priority, manuscripts are returned to the author immediately without peer review; this fast rejection process means that authors are given a quick decision on papers not appropriate for the journal.
For those manuscripts subjected to peer review, a decision about suitability is made based on the review feedback and judgment of the editors. When a manuscript is promising but not acceptable in its present form, suggestions for revisions are transmitted to the author.
For information on the journal’s review process or a manuscript’s progress, please contact the Managing Editor at email@example.com.
Original Research Articles: An original research article should contain no more than 8,000 words (~10 pages) in the main text (Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion) and a maximum of 6 display items (figures and tables). Where appropriate, detailed methods may be presented as supplementary materials. Supplementary materials should be presented as a single pdf file. Large datasets should be provided separately as supplemental materials.
Reviews: A full-length review should contain no more than 10,000 words (~12 pages) and 6 display items (figures and tables).
Letters to the Editor: Letters are brief and concise reports of novel findings of general interest to the field. A Letter should start with “Dear Editor,”, and contains NO abstract or other subsections. The main text should contain <1,000 words, one figure (multiple panels allowed) and up to 10 references. If necessary, methods and materials can be included in supplemental materials, which can be presented as a single pdf file.
Research Highlights: Research Highlights aim to point the BOR readership to the latest novel findings published in high-impact journals. A Research Highlight should contain no more than 1,000 words, up to 10 references and 1 display item, and must be read and approved by the corresponding author of the paper to be highlighted before submission.
Interviews: BOR publishes interviews with prominent investigators in the field, which are usually conducted by the BOR editorial team including Editors-in-Chief, Associate Editors and members of the Board of Reviewing Editors. An interview should contain no more than 1,000 words, up to 10 references and one portrait of the interviewee.
Commentaries: Commentaries highlight original research articles published in BOR. A commentary should contain no more than 1,000 words, up to 10 references and 1 display item.
Manuscripts that receive a decision of Reconsider after Major Revisions, Acceptance if Appropriately Revised, or Conditional Acceptance may be revised and submitted only once for re-review. Revised manuscripts must be received by the Editorial Office within 90 days of the date of first decision; if a revised manuscript is received after the 90-day period, it will be treated as a new manuscript or a resubmission. If authors find that an extension is necessary, they must request an extension from the Editors-in-Chief in writing. If authors decide not to submit a revision, they are asked to send a request for their submission to be withdrawn.
When a revised manuscript is submitted, the manuscript text, all figure and supplemental files, and a "marked-up" version of the original submission (a copy of the previous submission with revision changes drafted in using font attributes such as redline, strikeout, or highlight) must be uploaded. Please upload the marked-up version as a supplemental file. A point-by-point Response to Reviewers is also required for all revisions.
If an article is accepted for publication in BOR, the editors strongly encourage authors to submit a candidate image that may be used on the cover of an upcoming issue. Accepted authors who would like to submit an image for possible use as an issue cover should email a high resolution version of the image to the production editor at firstname.lastname@example.org. They should also include a one-sentence caption of the image.
Equations. Equations must NOT be formatted using the default math editing tool in Word 2007. Instead, use the Design Science Equation Editor or MathType by clicking "Object" in the Insert ribbon and choosing either object type "Microsoft Equation 3.0" or "MathType Equation."
Figure and reference citations. Cite references, tables, figures, and supplemental data consecutively. Place reference numbers in square brackets, e.g., "as Smith  reported" or "as previously reported [3-5]." Authors will be charged for any alterations to References at proof stage.
File format. Preferred file formats are Microsoft Word and Corel WordPerfect.
Fonts. Only standard fonts such as Helvetica or Times New Roman should be used.
Genetic sequence deposits. Genetic sequences must be deposited to the appropriate database; this must be documented in footnote 1 on the title page.
Headers. Three levels of heads may be used. Level 1 is reserved for BIOLRE section headers (e.g.,Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, etc.). Level 2 and 3 heads should consist of descriptive phrases.
Language. Choose U.S. English.
Line numbering. Manuscripts submitted without line numbering will be returned to authors for correction.
Line spacing. Double-space all text.
Manuscript length. There are currently no page or word limits for BIOLRE manuscripts; however, to contain publishing costs and reduce reader fatigue, manuscripts must be concise and avoid reiteration and redundancies.
Gene and protein nomenclature. Authors must adhere to the guidelines of the relevant species nomenclature committees.
Page numbering. Number pages at the top right.
Page setup. Choose letter-size, 8-1/2" x 11" paper. Set all margins at one inch.
Section order. Arrange research papers in the following order (for Reviews, the Introduction through Discussion sections do not apply):
Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to processing delays. See recent BIOLRE papers for examples of manuscript format. Please contact the Biology of Reproduction Editorial Office with any questions: email@example.com.
All submissions must have a cover letter. The cover letter should be submitted as a separate file, saved as “Cover Letter” and submitted through Editorial Manager as a supplemental file.
Videos can be published in the online article, with a still image of the video appearing in the print version. Please submit videos in MP4 format. Any supplementary videos that you do not want to be included in the article itself can be uploaded as supplementary data. All videos should have an accompanying legend.
References can be formatted in any readable style at submission, although authors are responsible for their accuracy.
Acknowledgements and details of funding sources should be included at the end of the text. Please refer to your funding organizations to acknowledge their support. PubMed Central links will require a specific grant number to be referenced.
Please list all author contributions upon submission of the manuscript.
Please also define non-standard abbreviations at the first occurrence and number figures and tables consecutively.
Upon revision papers should be submitted in an editable file format (i.e. not PDF) and figures should be submitted as separate, high-resolution, files.
Title. Indicate the species studied, using italics as needed. Do not use abbreviations or acronyms. Spell out Greek characters.
Running title. A title of 50 or fewer characters, including spaces. This will appear as the running head of your published paper.
Summary sentence. A one-sentence summary of the manuscript's significance (limited to 250 characters). Do not use phrases such as "this paper demonstrates…" or "we show that…" Examples of appropriate summary statements are:
Keywords. Title page keywords will appear on the first page of the final publication. There is no limit on the number of keywords that may be provided.
Authors and affiliations. List all authors and provide the full name (including departments and/or divisions) and location (i.e., city, state, country) of each institution where work was performed. Do not use abbreviations or acronyms, and do not provide street addresses. Use superscript Arabic numerals to key the authors to the institutions.
Grant support. Indicate financial support (i.e., funding agency names and grant or contract numbers, if applicable) in footnote 1. Do not include funding information in the Acknowledgment section.
Conference presentation (if applicable). If any research in the manuscript was presented elsewhere, indicate that here (e.g., "Presented in part at the 45th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Reproduction, 12-15 August 2012, State College, Pennsylvania.").
Correspondence. The corresponding author should be indicated in footnote 2; the footnote should give the complete contact information, including street address, for this person.
Additional footnotes. If two or more authors contributed equally to the work, or if an author's contact address has changed since the research was performed, this information should be provided in separate footnotes.
Abstract. In a maximum of 250 words, summarize the purpose of the work, the methods used, and the conclusions. Do not present data or cite references. Avoid abbreviations and acronyms, and spell out Greek characters.
Introduction. Provide a clear statement of the problem and cite the relevant literature on the subject. Do not include results or summary statements.
Ethics. It must be stated and documented that investigations using experimental animals or subjects were conducted in accordance with the SSR's specific guidelines and standards.
Brand names. Use generic names of chemicals, drugs, antibodies, reagents, enzymes, etc., when possible. Brand names should be used if the composition of that brand is critical to the methodology. If a brand name is given, the name of the manufacturer must also be provided. For example:
Composition. Specify the composition of all solutions, buffers, mixtures, and culture media (including PBS) if a brand name and manufacturer are not provided.
Donated materials. Provide institutional affiliations of individuals or companies that donated supplies or reagents.
Trademark symbols. Do not use trademark or registered symbols with brand or company names.
Concisely provide readers with sufficient information to replicate the work. Unpublished work may not be cited to provide validation of methodology. Include statistical methods used for data analysis. Use references to published methods if they are identical to methods used in the current study.
Present findings in appropriate detail, using the past tense. Refer to tables and figures in order, without discussion.
Nucleotide sequences should be submitted to GenBank, EMBL, or DNA Data Bank of Japan, and the accession number and date of accession noted in the text. Authors are encouraged to provide a link to the deposit rather than providing the complete sequence in the text.
Genomic and proteomic data should be deposited with the NCBI gene expression and hybridization array data repository (GEO). The GEO accession number and sequence deposit information should be referenced in footnote 1 after any funding information.
Provide a clear and concise interpretation of the results; avoid repeating the results.
Acknowledge any non-financial assistance (e.g., statistical review, technical help, editorial assistance, animal husbandry, etc.).
Acceptable works. Only published articles or articles accepted for publication may be used. Articles must have appeared in peer-reviewed publications or other published works that are accessible to most scientists. Articles that have been "conditionally accepted," "submitted," or are "in process" are not acceptable. If a paper has been accepted but has not been published in final form (i.e., full citation information is not yet available), please indicate that the paper is "in press."
- Abstracts. An abstract may be used as a reference only if it has been published in a regular issue of a readily available and indexed journal.
- Internet/online references. All online material must be cited completely and must include the web address and date of access by the authors. Many online sources provide a suggested citation.
- Unpublished data. Cite personal communications and unpublished data only if necessary. In the text, provide the name(s) of the individual(s) associated with the unpublished data. For example, "(Smith and Winter, unpublished data).
Accuracy. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of all references.
Order. All references should be cited in numerical order in the text using square brackets (e.g., "as Smith  reported" or "as previously reported [3-5]") and should appear in that order in the References section. If a reference citation appears only in a table or figure, number that reference last. For example, if there are 50 references in the text, four in a table, and two in a figure, the in-text references would be numbered 1-50, the references in the table would be numbered 51-54, and the references in the figure would be numbered 55-56.
TIP: Search for "[" in your Word or PDF document to see a list of your in-text references. Use this list to ensure that your references are in numerical order.
Presentation. List up to 12 authors and/or editors of a publication. If there are more than 12 authors, list the only first 12 followed by "et al." Abbreviate journal names according to Serial Sources for the BIOSIS Database, Index Medicus, or PubMed's Journal Browser. Page numbers must be inclusive (e.g., 722–729, not 722–29).
NOTE: EndNotes users may download a .ENS file in BIOLRE style from the EndNotes web site (type "Biology of Reproduction" in the Publication Name field).
Abstract in Biology of Reproduction.
Vo TTB, Jeung EB. Calbindin-D9k expression in GH3 cells is a biomarker of xenoestrogenic potential of parabens. In: Abstracts of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Reproduction, July 31-August 3, 2010, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Biol Reprod 2010; 83(suppl): Abstract 275.
Kwon DK, Koo OJ, Park SJ, Kang JT, Park HJ, Kim SJ, Moon JH, Saadeldin IM, Jang G, Lee BC. Optimizing porcine oocytes electrical activation by adjusting pre- and post-activation mannitol exposure time. In: Supplement to Biology of Reproduction for the Forty-Fourth Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Reproduction, July 31-August 4, 2011, Portland, Oregon. Biol Reprod 2011; Suppl: Abstract 176.
Sokol RR, Rohlf FJ. Biometry. New York: WH Freeman and Co; 1981:253-261.
Harrison RJ, Weir BJ. Structure of the mammalian ovary. In: Zuckerman S, Weit BJ (eds.), The Ovary, vol. 1, 2nd ed. New York: Academic Press; 1977:113-217.
Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB), Mouse Genome Informatics. Bar Harbor, ME: The Jackson Laboratory; 2004. http://www.informatics.jax.org. Accessed 11 October 2012.
Mammalian Reproductive Genetics [Internet]. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. http://mrg.genetics.washington.edu. Accessed 12 January 2012.
Journal article, 12 or fewer authors.
Demas GE, Nelson RJ. Photoperiod, ambient temperature, and food availability interact to affect reproductive and immune function in adult male deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). J Biol Rhythms 1998; 13:253–262.
Journal article, more than 12 authors.
Okasaki Y, Okazaki Y, Furuno M, Kasukawa T, Adachi J, Bono H, Kondo S, Nikaido I, Osato N, Saito R, Suzuki H, Yamanaka I, et al. Analysis of the mouse transcriptome based on functional annotation of 60,770 full-length cDNAs. Nature 2002; 420:563-573.
Journal article, published ahead of print.
Aitken-Palmer C, Hou R, Burrell C, Zhang Z, Wang C, Spindler R, Wildt DE, Ottinger MA, Howard J. Protracted reproductive seasonality in the male giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) reflected by patterns in androgen profiles, ejaculate characteristics, and selected behaviors. Biol Reprod 2012; (in press). Published online ahead of print 4 April 2012; DOI 10.1095/biolreprod.112.099044.
Journal article, e-journal.
Yuen T, Wurmbach E, Pfeffer RL, Ebersole BJ, Sealfon SC. Accuracy and calibration of commercial oligonucleotide and custom cDNA microarrays. Nucleic Acids Res 2002; 30:e48.
Smith C, Jones K (inventors). The United States of America as represented by the Department of Health and Human Services, assignee. Adreno-medullin peptides. U.S. patent 6 320 022; 2001.
Thesis or dissertation.
Wilson K. The effects of substance P, neurotensin and arginine vasopressin on reproductive function. London, UK: University of London; 1984. Thesis.
Abbreviations. Do not use abbreviations in titles. Do spell out all abbreviations at first mention in the Abstract and in the body of the manuscript.
Beginning sentences. Do not begin sentences with very short abbreviations or acronyms, especially those that begin with a lower case letter. For example, hCG and cDNA should instead be "Human CG" and "Complementary DNA," respectively, when beginning a sentence.
Definitions. Do define all abbreviations and acronyms at first mention in the Abstract and in the body of the manuscript. Definitions are not needed for names of genes, gene products, proteins, and protein products.
Eponyms. Do not use the possessive form for an eponym. For example, do use Dulbecco Modified Eagle medium, not Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium; Hanks solution, not Hanks' solution; Student t-test, not Student's t-test; etc.
Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature. Do not use the nomenclature for polypeptide hormones proposed by the Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature. Do use follicle-stimulating hormone, not follitropin; luteinizing hormone, not lutropin; etc.
Latin terms. Do not italicize Latin terms such as et al., in situ, in vitro, or in vivo. Do use italics for gene symbols and genus-species designations.
Nomenclature. For all genes, the gene names should be spelled out in the first mention, and they should be abbreviated in acronym form in all following mentions. If there are any previous gene names, these names should be included in parentheses following the first mention of the gene. For example, "Granulosa cells produce vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA; previously known as ________ )."
The basic nomenclature guidelines for Biology of Reproduction are as follows:
A. Mouse and Rat
Websites for nomenclature rules:
• Mouse and rat: http://www.informatics.jax.org
• Rat only: http://rgd.mcw.edu
General nomenclature rules (mouse and rat):
• Full gene names are in roman font (not italic); e.g., insulin-like growth factor 1.
• Greek symbols are not used.
Gene, mRNA, and cDNA symbols:
• Italic font, with only the first letter upper case; e.g., Igf1.
• Greek symbols are not used. Hyphens are rarely used.
• Use the same symbol as the gene.
• Roman font (not italic), with all letters upper case; e.g., IGF1.
• Define when first mentioned; e.g., "Igf1 tm1Arge/Igf1 tm1Arge is one of several knockout alleles of Igf1."
• Italic font is used for all letters and numbers, with the allelic designation (e.g. tm1Arge) in superscript.
• After first mention, the homozygous KO can be indicated as Igf1-/-; the heterozygote can be indicated as Igf1+/-, etc.
B. Humans, nonhuman primates, chickens, domestic species, and everything that is not a mouse, rat, fish, worm, frog, or fly
Website for nomenclature rules:
General nomenclature rules:
• Full gene names are in roman font (not italic); e.g., insulin-like growth factor 1.
• Greek symbols are not used.
Gene, MRNA, and cDNA symbols:
• Italic font, with all letters upper case; e.g., IGF1.
• Greek symbols are never used.
• Hyphens are used only in very specific cases (please refer to the nomenclature guidelines).
• Use the same symbol as the gene.
• Roman font (not italic), with all letters upper case; e.g., IGF1.
C. Fish (applies to all fish)
Website for nomenclature rules:
General nomenclature rules:
• Full gene names are in italic font, with all letters lower case; e.g., cyclops.
• Greek symbols are not used.
• Italic font, with all letters lower case; e.g., cyc.
• Greek symbols are not used.
• Use the same symbol as the gene.
• Roman font (not italic), with only the first letter upper case; e.g., Cyc.
Units of measure. Standard abbreviations for units of measure and abbreviations understood by scientists outside the field of reproductive biology may be used without definition: ml, g, IU, UV, i.v., EC, cpm, dpm, P, etc.
All illustrations that are not tables (e.g., gels, blots, charts, graphs, photographs, micrographs) are considered figures. View the submission site's Help and FAQ pages for solutions to common upload problems.
Digital Image Preparation
The following is summarized from Biology of Reproduction's Guidelines for Digital Images.
• Images should be minimally processed. The final image must correctly represent the original data and conform to current standards for ethical scientific imaging.
• Original, unaltered images must be provided to the Editors if requested. If the original data cannot be produced, manuscript acceptance may be revoked.
• Cases of deliberate misrepresentation of data will result in revocation of acceptance and will be reported to the corresponding author's home institution or funding agency (see Due Process).
• Please also refer to the University of Arizona's guidelines for digital imaging ethics.
Acceptable (only if uniformly applied to the whole image and equally applied to representative controls):
• Color balance
Unacceptable (unless justified to reviewers and disclosed in the figure legend):
• Threshold manipulation
• Expansion or contraction of signal ranges
• Altering of high signals
• Nonlinear adjustments, such as gamma
• Adjustments of individual color channels (if necessary on "merged" images, must be noted in figure legend)
Antibody use. A useful discussion is presented by Saper CB, J Comp Neurol 2005; 493:477-478.
Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Data should include:
• Appropriate, representative controls (either in the figures or in Supplemental Data)
• Information on the full characterization of antibodies used
Materials and Methods. Information in this section should include:
o Make and model of microscope
o Objective lens information (e.g., numerical aperture, filter sets, wavelength cutoff, bandwidth data)
o Camera systems
o Image processing software
• Resolution at which images were acquired
• Software used for image processing; include details about operations such as:
o Type of deconvolution
o 3D reconstructions
o Surface or volume rendering
o Gamma adjustments
Gels and blots
Combined gels. Vertically sliced gels that juxtapose lanes that were not contiguous in the experiment must have a clear separation or a black line delineating the boundary between the gels.
Controls and size markers. Positive and negative controls and molecular size markers should be included on each gel and/or blot in the main figure or in an expanded supplementary figure.
Cropped gels and blots. Cropping is permissible if it improves the clarity and conciseness of the\ presentation; however, cropped gels must retain important bands, and cropped blots should retain at least six band widths above and below the band. In such cases, the cropping must be mentioned in the figure legend, and Supplemental Data for review should include full-length gels and blots wherever possible.
High-contrast gels and blots. These are discouraged, as overexposure may mask additional bands. Authors should strive for exposures with gray backgrounds. Multiple exposures should be presented in Supplemental Data if high contrast is unavoidable.
Immunoblots. If the background is faint, use a black line to indicate blot borders. For quantitative comparisons, use appropriate reagents, controls, and imaging methods with linear signal ranges.
• EPS: Encapsulated PostScript.
• AI: The native file format of Adobe Illustrator.
• PSD: The native file format of Adobe Photoshop.
• TIFF: These files must be saved using "LZW compression" to avoid a loss of image integrity during the submission conversion process.
• PDF: The native file format of Adobe Acrobat. All PDF images should be saved at the highest-quality setting.
• JPG: Due to the lower quality of JPG files, if this format must be used, all images should be saved at the highest-quality setting.
• DOC or PPT: Although it is often easier to label graphs and photos within Microsoft Word or PowerPoint, these file types were not created with print processes in mind, and the final print quality of such files may be compromised. If possible, it is recommended that all Word and PowerPoint files be saved as high-quality PDFs prior to submission.
• SigmaPlot, Deltagraph, Canvas, etc.: Graphing or drawing program files should be saved as EPS or PDF files.
Upon acceptance, editorial staff will check the quality of all figures and may request new files for online and print production. Edited figures will be compared against those approved by the reviewers and, if substantively different, will need be sent to an editor for approval.
The minimum resolution specifications for digital figure files at final print size are:
• 1200 dpi: Line image (black and white only; e.g., a chart).
• 600 dpi: Combination image (grayscale or color image that contains text; e.g., a photograph or blot with letter labels, arrows, or text added outside the image area).
• 300 dpi: Grayscale or color image (grayscale or color image that does not contain text; e.g., a photograph or blot with no labels, arrows, or other text added outside the image area).
Consistency. Figures should have a consistent appearance throughout the paper.
Keys. A key should be used to explain symbols and patterns on graphs.
Borders. Do not use borders in or around figures.
Lines. Pay particular attention to the quality of the lines, symbols, and patterns. Avoid using patterns in bars; use open and solid bars wherever possible. Do not use 3-dimensional graphs to show 2-dimensional data.
Numbering. Number figures consecutively with Arabic numerals (e.g., 1, 2, 3) in the order in which they are discussed in the text. This number should be included on each figure at least 0.5 cm (0.25") above or below the figure itself.
Abbreviations. Define all abbreviations that appear on the figure that have not been defined in the text.
Label consistency. Any numerical or alphabetical labels used in the figure should appear similarly in the legend.
Methods. Do not describe methods or results in figure legends.
Placement. Present figure legends in numerical order and in their own section (see manuscript section order).
Scale/magnification. Indicate the scale used for all micrographs, if not specified in the figure itself (e.g., "Bar = 1 μm" or "Original magnification x200").
Symbols. Special symbols should not appear in the legend. Any special symbols appearing in a figure should be defined in a key in the figure and described in the legend.
Use tables only for data that are best understood in a column-and-row format.
Biology of Reproduction requires authors using antibodies for immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, western blots, immunoblots, immunoneutralization, or related methodology, to submit an Antibody table. This supplementary table should be numbered to indicate its position in the sequence of tables in the article (e.g. Supplementary Table 1). In the Materials and Methods section, describe appropriate positive or negative controls, antibody validation, lot number, and provide references. Authors should also determine whether the antibody has a Research Resource Identifier (RRID) by consulting the Antibody Registry and include this information, if available, in the Methods section and/or the Antibody table of the original submission. If there is not an RRID, authors are required to register the antibody and obtain one no later than the revision stage of submission. For more information, see the Resource Identification Portal.
Cell Line Authentication
Cell lines maintained in vitro represent valuable tools in biological studies. However, many cell lines are misidentified or cross-contaminated (1). Studies using misidentified cell lines may affect the reliability and accuracy of results, and thus, could have important clinically relevant implications. Given the importance of this problem, Biology of Reproduction editorial policy will require that all cell lines used and described in submitted manuscripts be authenticated. Authentication can occur using several possible techniques that are not mutually exclusive. The use of short tandem repeat profiling (STR) is an internationally recognized method of genetic profiling of cell lines (1, 2). An important advantage of STR profiling is that the data can be utilized to search major repositories to compare and confirm the maintenance of original cell line characteristics. STR profiling does not, however, give information regarding the tissue of origin. Phenotypic markers, such as the use of thyroglobulin in differentiated thyroid cancer cell lines, may help characterize the source of the thyroid cell lines. Authors should submit the date (month, year) when the authenticity was last confirmed.
This editorial policy will concur with the ATCC® Standards Development Organization and ATCC® SDO workgroup suggestion to perform STR in the following circumstances:
- when a cell line is received from an outside source (repository, other investigator),
- for newly established cultures,
- If many different cell lines are employed within a given laboratory.
The identity of cell lines used in studies to be submitted for publication in the Endocrine Society journals should be confirmed and that confirmation indicated as part of the manuscript submission process. Alternative or supplemental authentication can be performed by DNA genetic analysis and/or fingerprinting, copy number variant or molecular karyotype/chromosomal analysis.
Footnote designations. Footnotes should be denoted with superscript letters or symbols, be consistent within the table, and be keyed to data in the table. Numerals may not be used as footnote designators.
Footnote length. Footnotes should be brief, descriptive statements that apply only to the data or formatting in that table. Do not duplicate text from the main body of the paper.
Graphics. Tables should be formatted as simply as possible and should be composed entirely of text characters. Large or complex tables or tables that include graphic elements should be submitted as figures. Please contact the BOR Editorial Office if it is unclear whether material should be a table or a figure.
Heads. Every column in a table should be labeled, including the first on the left.
Placement and numbering. Place each table on a separate page and number tables consecutively with Arabic numerals (i.e., 1, 2, 3) according to their order of citation in the text. Place these numbers above each table, in front of the table's title.
Rounding. Round numbers within tables to the nearest whole number or significant digit. Numbers smaller than "1" should include a zero to the left of the decimal mark.
Size. Do not create a table with only one or two rows or columns; instead, present this data in the text.
Title. The title should be one concise sentence and should appear before each table.
Digital Image Integrity
When preparing digital images, authors must adhere to the following guidelines as stated in The CSE’s White Paper on Promoting Integrity in Scientific Journal Publications:
No specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced.
Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if they are applied to the entire image and as long as they do not obscure, eliminate, or misrepresent any information present in the original.
The grouping of images from different parts of the same gel, or from different gels, fields, or exposures must be made explicit by the arrangement of the figure (e.g., dividing lines) and in the figure legend.
Deviations from these guidelines will be considered as potential ethical violations.
Note that this is an evolving issue, but these basic principles apply regardless of changes in the technical environment. Authors should be aware that they must provide original images when requested to do so by the Editor-in-Chief who may wish to clarify an uncertainty or concern.
[Please see paper of Rossner and Yamada (Journal of Cell Biology, 2004, 166:11–15), which was consulted in developing these policy issues, for additional discussion and a white paper on Promoting Integrity in Scientific Journal Publications, published by The Council of Science Editors, 2006.]
1. Korch C, Spillman MA, Jackson TA, Jacobsen BM, Murphy SK, Lessey BA, Jordan VC, Bradford AP. DNA profiling analysis of endometrial and ovarian cancer cell lines reveals misidentification, redundancy and contamination. Gynecol Oncol 127:241-8.
2. Parson W, Kirchebner R, Muhlmann R, et al. 2005 Cancer cell line identification by short tandem repeat profiling: power and limitations. FASEB J19:434–6
Submit all material to be considered as supplementary material online at the same time as the main manuscript. Ensure that the supplementary material is referred to in the main manuscript at an appropriate point in the text. Supplementary material will be available online only and will not be copyedited, so ensure that it is clearly and succinctly presented, and that the style conforms to the rest of the paper. Also ensure that the presentation will work on any Internet browser. It is not recommended for the files to be more than 2 MB each, although exceptions can be made at the editorial office’s discretion.
File formats. File size must be reduced wherever possible to ensure that all users, regardless of internet speed or computer capabilities, may access the data.
• File size limit: 5 MB.
• Acceptable formats: JPEG, TIFF, EPS, and PDF.
Tables and other text.
• File size limit: 5 MB.
• Acceptable format: PDF. If authors do not have access to a PDF creator, editorial staff will convert the supplemental files to PDF on their behalf.
• File size limit: 10 MB.
• Acceptable formats: MOV, MPEG. QuickTime videos are preferred.
• Authors must include a "still" photograph from the video in a figure in the paper.
File names. Name the file uniquely using a maximum of eight characters (i.e., no symbols, hyphens, or punctuation). For example, "hyperactivation movie.2.mov" should be "hyper2.mov".
File size. The total number of supplemental data files may not exceed 10 files, and the total number of megabytes may not exceed 10 MB. If your supplemental files exceed these restrictions, even with compression, please contact the BOR Editorial Office.
In-text citations. All supplemental data must cited in the manuscript text (e.g., "see Supplemental Table S1"), and each supplemental table or figure should be numbered according to the order in which it is cited.
Legends. Provide supplemental figure legends in a Supplemental Data Legends section in the manuscript (see section order). Editorial staff will publish the legends with the supplemental data online.
Movie still images. Authors must include one still photograph from each supplemental movie as a figure in the paper. This panel can be either the entire figure or a part of a multipaneled figure.
Submission. Supplemental data may be submitted online at the time of submission. It is the authors' responsibility to indicate in the cover letter whether the data are intended for publication or are for review only.
Online Publication: Advance Access
Biology of Reproduction seeks to publish research as quickly as possible, therefore accepted manuscripts are published on Advance Access within 24 hours of receipt at OUP. The manuscript then goes through the production and editing process and, when the final version is ready, it is uploaded on Advance Access, replacing the uncorrected version.
Language editing, if your first language is not English, is to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers is optional. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. For further information on this service, please click here. Several specialist language editing companies offer similar services and you can also use any of these. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services.
Permissions for Third-Party Copyright
In order for Biology of Reproduction to publish any third-party material, including tables, figures, or images in an article, authors must obtain permission from the copyright holder and be compliant with any requirements the copyright holder may have pertaining to this reuse. When seeking to reproduce any kind of third party material authors should request the following:
• non-exclusive rights to reproduce the material in the specified article and journal;
• print and electronic rights, preferably for use in any form or medium;
• the right to use the material for the life of the work; and
• world-wide English-language rights.
It is particularly important to clear permission for use in both the print and online versions of the journal, and we are not able to accept permissions which carry a time limit because we retain journal articles as part of our online journal archive. Further guidelines on clearing permissions can be found here.
Conflicts of Interest
Oxford University Press requires declaration of any conflict of interest upon submission online. If the manuscript is published, conflict of interest information will be communicated in a statement in the published paper.
Oxford Open Access Options
Biology of Reproduction authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication.
After your manuscript is accepted, the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory license to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process, you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for Open Access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged.
Authors publishing in Biology of Reproduction can use the following licenses for their articles:
• Creative Commons Attribution license (CC BY)
• Creative Commons Non-Commercial license (CC BY-NC)
Please click here for more information about Creative Commons licenses.
The CC-BY NC Open Access charges are as follows.
For non-society members:
• Regular charge: £1969 / $3150 / €2481
For society members:
• Regular charge: £1181 / $1890 / €1489
• List B Developing country charge*: £985 / $1575 / €1241
• List A Developing country charge*: £0 /$0 / €0
The CC-BY Open Access license charges are as follows:
For non-society members:
• Regular charge: £2100 / $3360 / €2643
For society members:
• Regular charge: £1181 / $1890 / €1489
• List B Developing country charge*: £1050 / $1680 / €1322
• List A Developing country charge*: £0 /$0 / €0
*Visit our developing countries page (click here for a list of qualifying countries).
You can pay open access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post.
Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution, and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.
There are no color charges. Color figures are free online. All figures print black and white in the printed issue.
Research Article Charges
If you do not opt to have your article under Oxford Open Access, every research article is charged a flat fee:
• Society members: $650
• Non-society members: $1400/£1050/€1255
Reviews have a charge of $100 per page after 6 pages (the first 6 pages are free).
Please click here to learn more about Biology of Reproduction’s self-archiving policy.
All authors are responsible for the validity and accuracy of the data and manuscript and are required to:
• Certify that no scientific misconduct occurred in the performance or reporting of the research.
• Describe the research in sufficient detail for others to be able to repeat it.
• Include all relevant data, even those that may contradict the hypotheses being tested.
• Acknowledge previous contributions with accurate citations.
• Follow all criteria for ethical conduct of research with animals and/or humans, and to include statements to this effect in the body of the manuscript.
• Make available to other researchers all reagents and research materials not commercially available, including but not limited to plasmids, antibodies, cell lines, hybridomas, DNA sequences, and expression array data used in the studies reported.
• Ensure that the submitted manuscript, once accepted, is not materially altered in the proof stage. All changes, other than minor ones in the text, must be approved by the Editors-in-Chief.
• Ensure that officially recognized nomenclature is used for DNA, mRNA, and proteins, and that all DNA, protein, microarray, and genomic sequence data are available in public databases.
• All authors must have participated in the research reported either in its conception, performance, or interpretation.
• All authors will share full responsibility for the work and accountability for the results.
• A signature on the Statement of Authorship and Copyright Transfer form is required of all authors and indicates that each author is aware of the contents and has significantly contributed to the study reported.
• Potential financial conflicts of interest by the authors must be disclosed in the cover letter, with appropriate documentation provided, if necessary.
• An acknowledgment is appropriate for those who have contributed to a lesser extent, such as by providing a reagent or reviewing the data or draft of the manuscript.
Scientific misconduct includes:
• Selection of data
• Duplicate publications
• Violation of international, federal, or state rules
• Honorary authorship
The Use of Experimental Subjects
• All studies involving human subjects or human tissue must be in accordance with the principles set out in the Declaration of Helsinki and must have been formally approved by the appropriate institutional review board, ethical review committee, or equivalent.
• Experiments involving risk or discomfort to subjects require documentation that informed consent was obtained from the subjects and that an institutional human research committee approved the investigations.
• A statement that these guidelines were followed shall appear in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript.
• The Editor(s)-in-Chiefs reserve the right to reject any manuscript that does not meet acceptable standards of research behavior.
The Care and Use of Experimental Animals
SSR acknowledges that all animals are creatures of great intrinsic value and remarkable complexity. Investigators shall follow the highest possible standards for the humane care and use of animals in research.
• Institutional approval is required for all animal studies.
• Due consideration shall be given to the use of in vitro models, the appropriateness of the animal species, and the minimum number of animals needed to meet rigorous scientific and statistical standards.
• Animals bred specifically for laboratory study are to be used whenever practical.
• All research animals shall be acquired, retained, and used in compliance with federal, state, and local laws and regulations.
• Research animals shall be properly housed and fed, and their surroundings shall be kept in sanitary condition in accordance with the National Research Council's Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (a.k.a., the NIH Guide), or the Consortium Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching.
• Research animals shall receive appropriate anesthetics, analgesics, tranquilizers, and care to minimize pain and discomfort during procedures. The choice and use of the most appropriate drug shall be made in strict accordance with the NIH Guide, and all procedures shall be those of accepted veterinary medical practice.
• If the study or the condition of the animal requires that the animal be killed, then a humane method shall be employed.
• Use of animals shall be under the direct supervision of an experienced teacher or investigator.
• A statement that these guidelines were followed shall appear in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript.
• Authors of manuscripts submitted to BOR must agree that the substance of the research being reported has not been submitted or published elsewhere.
• If parts of the report have been presented in a preliminary report or at a meeting (e.g., abstract or poster), then this occurrence must be stated.
Allegations involving possible violation of the above guidelines shall be submitted to the Editor(s)-in-Chief, who will contact the author to request an explanation. If the Editor(s)-in-Chief feels that further investigation is warranted, she/he will contact the Chair of the SSR Publications Committee and the SSR President. These representatives will determine whether the allegations need to be transmitted to the author's home institution.
• If an investigation by the home institution concludes that an SSR member or BOR author has committed serious scientific error or misconduct, then the President will convey the decision to the SSR Board of Directors for consideration of disciplinary measures.
• If institutional investigation provides convincing evidence that data or analyses in a paper published in BOR are erroneous, the Editor(s)-in-Chief shall facilitate prompt publication of a report pointing out the error and either correcting it or, if necessary, retracting the paper. The report may be written by an original author or the Editor(s)-in-Chief's office.
• If misconduct was uncovered during the host institution’s investigation, penalties may range from an official reprimand to removal from specific Society responsibilities or dismissal from the Society. The penalty may also include temporary or permanent withdrawal of permission to publish in BOR.
Author information pack
Your Paper Your Way
We now differentiate between the requirements for new and revised submissions. You may choose to submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file to be used in the refereeing process. Only when your paper is at the revision stage, will you be requested to put your paper in to a 'correct format' for acceptance and provide the items required for the publication of your article.
To find out more, please visit the Preparation section below.
Scientific Guidelines for Authors submitting to Developmental Biology
Developmental Biology's goal is to publish high quality papers providing causal insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern developmental processes.Studies which simply confirm an established functional role for a developmental component by presenting analysis in a new species lack sufficient novelty for consideration. Descriptive studies will only be considered if/when they represent a timely and novel insights or resources to the field.
The following article types are available for authors:
Original Research Papers
Expression profiling and gene expression studies must contain supporting functional data. Studies solely based on analysis of expression by microarray, northern blots, PCR or in situ hybridization that are too descriptive or preliminary would not justify full review.Developmental Biology is pleased to publish classical experimental embryology papers that provide unusual new insights.
Experiments using interfering DNA or proteins to address gene function are expected to be highly controlled. In particular, experiments with Morpholino, RNAi, siRNA or dominant negative constructs are expected to contain very precise controls to address the specificity of the effects observed.Studies in which the expression, structure or function of a gene/protein is altered but leads to no phenotypic consequences are not appropriate. Furthermore, studies of mutants which simply show that a gene/protein is required for development will be discouraged unless attempts are made to address the mechanistic basis, causal roles or tissues and processes affected.
Experiments using stem cells must advance our understanding of biological functioning. Studies that simply grow/isolate stem cells from a tissue and show what markers they express are not appropriate.Studies using cell culture must show direct (in vivo) relevance in a developmental context.
Resource papers are original research papers which provide important and timely information that will have an impact on the work of developmental biologists. Examples of such papers are studies describing novel spatial gene expression patterns and gene phylogeny, new model systems or containing a usable collection of data of particular value to the field. This would not include, for example, a description of the expression pattern of a gene in one species that has already been described in another species, or an expression pattern with no obvious link to a developmental process.Please note, authors submitting a Resource Paper should select "Research Paper" article type and designate "Resource" under Manuscript Category in Additional Information (step 3 of submission). No specific formatting restrictions are applied to Resource papers; however, we encourage authors to prepare succinct descriptions, so to have Resource papers as readily usable references for scientists.
Short CommunicationsShort communications are intended to provide quick publication of good impact results, thus portraying current advances in the field of Developmental Biology. This new format of paper in DB should contain approximately four figures and a single scientific conclusion. Although there is no specific word limit, typical short communications are in the range of 2,000-3,000 words.
Review ArticlesReview articles are intended to reach a broad audience of readers from investigators in the field to new graduate students learning the material for the first time. We encourage submissions of review articles on established topics in the field but also on timely and provocative areas of research. Review Articles are by invitation; scientists who wish to contribute a review should send a pre-submission inquiry to one of the editors.
Opinion papers (DB Perspectives)This article type is intended to raise new ideas and challenge current dogma. An abstract is still required but the format is flexible. Perspectives are subject to the same review process as original papers, but may receive expedited consideration.
Technical Notes (DB Methods)Technical notes provide a space for protocols and technologies that advance the field of Developmental Biology. Novel solutions and applications of technologies at the frontier with other areas of science will be considered of particular importance. No specific formatting requirements are applied to these articles, protocols are encouraged as long as an appropriate introductory background and aim of the technique and representative images are included.
CommentaryDB accepts commentaries on newly published articles of particular relevance to the developmental biology field. Commentaries should provide an insightful perspective on a topic just published in a journal by discussing the context, existing problems and/or implications of a new finding. A commentary may also speculate on future directions of a certain topic and may include a personal opinion. Commentaries should be no longer than 2000 words and should not contain an abstract.
Key resources tableWe encourage authors to submit a key resources table during submission. The Key Resources Table serves to highlight materials and resources (including genetically modified organisms and strains, cell lines, reagents, software, experimental models, and original source data for computational studies) essential to reproduce results presented in the manuscript. Literature listed in the Key Resources Table must be included in the References list. We highly recommend using RRIDs (see https://scicrunch.org/resources) as the identifier for antibodies and model organisms in the Key Resources Table. Please do not add custom headings or subheadings to the Key Resources Table. Please download and fill out this template. The Key Resources Table should be referenced at the end of the Materials & Methods section and uploaded as a separate file in the submission process.
Supplementary dataDevelopmental Biology supports the presentation of all experimental data in its final published articles online and in print. For this reason word length and figure numbers are not restricted (except for Short Communications) and supplementary data are generally not supported.
For large datasets such as microarrays, RNAseq, ChIP-seq, proteomic analysis, etc. whose publication would be impossible within a regular article, Developmental Biology offers its authors the possibility to submit these data and their description as a companion paper to Data in Brief. See appropriate paragraph below for explanation.Contact details for submission
Articles for Developmental Biology should be submitted via the journal online submission system
Customer support is available 24/7:Please use our help site at: http://service.elsevier.com/. Here you will be able to learn more about the online submission system via interactive tutorials, explore a range of problem solutions via our knowledgebase, and find answers to frequently asked questions. You will also find our 24/7 support contact details should you need any assistance from one of our customer service representatives.
For questions on the reviewing and submission process please contact the Developmental Biology Editorial Office at: DB@elsevier.comFor publishing queries please contact Dr. Valentina Sasselli, Publisher for Cell Biology at Elsevier: firstname.lastname@example.org
Ethics in publishing
Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.
Declaration of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.
Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)
Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 2350, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: https://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.
This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.
Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.
Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.
Color figures for exclusive use as cover illustrations are invited from all the authors of accepted manuscripts. Such illustrations do not need to relate to the manuscript but should relate to the larger scope and focus of Developmental Biology and can be high quality reproductions of figures as well as modified images of aesthetic value. The editors may decide on the best cover image based on image quality and content of the study.
Cover images can be provided in either of the following formats:
- TIFF image, in RGB mode, with a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.
- JPEG image, in RGB mode, with a minimum resolution of 500 dpi.
Please submit cover images for consideration directly to the journal mailbox email@example.com . For large size files please use a web-based file hosting service.
Copyright of the cover image will remain with the author/creator, who will be asked to complete a nonexclusive license to re-use the image. A copy of this license can be downloaded hereMaterials
Publication of a research article in Developmental Biology is taken to imply that the authors are prepared to distribute all non-commercially obtained materials used in the experiments (e.g. cells, DNA, antibodies, primary data), to other academic researchers for their own use or for verification. All nucleic acid and protein sequences must have been deposited in the appropriate databases and the Accession Numbers cited in the paper.
Data from microarray and other similar screens:
Please see the MGED open letter specifying microarray standards at http://www.mged.org/Workgroups/MIAME/miame_checklist.html. Authors submitting manuscripts relying on microarray or similar screens must supply the data as Supplementary data (see below) at the time of submission, along with the completed MIAME checklist. The data must be MIAME-compliant and supplied in a form that is widely accessible. The microarray data must also be submitted to either the GEO (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/) or ArrayExpress (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/) databases, with accession numbers at or before acceptance of the paper for publication. The editors understand that on occasion authors may not feel it appropriate to deposit the entire data set at the time of publication of this paper. We are therefore willing to consider exceptions to this requirement in response to a request from the authors, which must be made at the time of initial submission or as part of an informal pre-submission enquiry.
Upon acceptance of the manuscript for publication in DB, authors reporting mouse gene expression data from RNA in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, Northern blot, Western blot and RT-PCR experiments are requested to submit pertinent data to the Mouse Gene Expression Database (GXD). These data submissions will receive accession numbers that may then be inserted into the manuscript. Please see GXD's guidelines for electronic data submission at http://www.informatics.jax.org/mgihome//GXD/GEN/gxd_submission_guidelines.shtml.
Gene and protein nomenclatureThe journal supports the use of the official nomenclature for genes and proteins and discourages the use of outdated and incorrectly formatted names and symbols. To this end, we encourage authors before submission to confirm the current official name and/or symbol for all genes and proteins mentioned in their articles following the guidelines listed in the following online resources:
Arabidopsis: The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) - nomenclature guidelinesChicken: Chicken Gene Nomenclature Consortium (CGNC)
Drosophila: FlyBase -nomenclature guidelinesHuman: Human Gene Nomenclature Committee (HUGO)
Mouse: Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) - Mouse nomenclature guidelinesNematodes: WormBase - nomenclature guidelines
Rat: Rat Genome Database (RGD) - Rat nomenclature guidelinesXenopus: Xenbase - Xenopus nomenclature guidelines
Yeast: Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) - nomenclature guidelinesZebrafish: ZFIN - Zebrafish nomenclature guidelines
US National Institutes of Health (NIH) posting ("Public Access") policy
As a service to our authors, Elsevier will deposit to PubMed Central (PMC) author manuscripts on behalf of Elsevier authors reporting NIH funded research. This service is a continuation of Elsevier's 2005 agreement with the NIH when the NIH introduced their voluntary 'Public Access Policy'. See http://www.elsevier.com/about/open-science/open-access/agreements/elsevier-nih-policy-statement.
Elsevier is pleased to announce that all articles published in Developmental Biology are accessible to non-subscribers 12 months after publication via ScienceDirect (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00121606).
Policy for Wellcome Trust funded authors
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process.
As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.
There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions.
If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.
Divide the article into clearly defined sections. It is not necessary to format your manuscript in double column layout, even if the journal has a double column layout.
Please note that the instructions related to Abstract, Graphical abstract & Keywords still apply to all new submissions.
This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.
REVISED SUBMISSIONSUse of word processing software
Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
Material and methods
Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.
Results should be clear and concise.
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.
Essential title page information
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration Services to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements.
Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). You can view example Highlights on our information site.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.Artwork
Whilst it is accepted that authors sometimes need to manipulate images for clarity, manipulation for purposes of deception or fraud will be seen as scientific ethical abuse and will be dealt with accordingly. For graphical images, this journal is applying the following policy: no specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if and as long as they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original. Nonlinear adjustments (e.g. changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the figure legend.
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
• For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
• Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
• Supply files that are too low in resolution.
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF) or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
ReferencesCitation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:
 M. Oguro, S. Imahiro, S. Saito, T. Nakashizuka, Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.For reference style 1a numbered without article and chapter titles:
 M. Oguro, S. Imahiro, S. Saito, T. Nakashizuka, Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.For reference style 2 Harvard:
Oguro, M., Imahiro, S., Saito, S., Nakashizuka, T., 2015. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions. Mendeley Data, v1. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.For reference style 3 Vancouver Numbered:
 Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.For reference style 4 Vancouver Name and Year:
Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.For reference style 5 APA:
Oguro, M., Imahiro, S., Saito, S., Nakashizuka, T. (2015). Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions. Mendeley Data, v1. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.For reference style 6 AMA:
5. Oguro, M, Imahiro, S, Saito, S, Nakashizuka, T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. . In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.
The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.
Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.
Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.
This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.
For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.
Data in Brief
You have the option of converting any or all parts of your supplementary or additional raw data into one or multiple data articles, a new kind of article that houses and describes your data. Data articles ensure that your data is actively reviewed, curated, formatted, indexed, given a DOI and publicly available to all upon publication. You are encouraged to submit your article for Data in Brief as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of your manuscript. If your research article is accepted, your data article will automatically be transferred over to Data in Brief where it will be editorially reviewed and published in the open access data journal, Data in Brief. Please note an open access fee of 500 USD is payable for publication in Data in Brief. Full details can be found on the Data in Brief website. Please use this template to write your Data in Brief.
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.
The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
• If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.
Online proof correction
Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.
Distribution of Material
Authors who publish a research article in Developmental Biology must be prepared to freely distribute to academic researchers for their own use any cell lines, DNA clones, monoclonal antibodies, or genetically engineered mice described in the article. All genetic-sequence information published in Developmental Biology must also be deposited with GenBank or the EMBL Database Library.
Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.