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Pre Assignment Pmp Certification

Note to Aspirants taking the exam from 26 March 2018 onwards: please click here to read the updated PMP® Study Notes based on PMBOK® Guide 6th Edition. Happy learning!

This Project Management Knowledge Area is known as  “Project Human Rescource Management” as described in the PMBOK® Guide 5th Edition (It is updated in PMBOK® Guide 6th Edition as “Project Resource Management” which reflects more closely what a Project Manager is required to manage — not only the human resource but also other physical resources).

Introduction: This part of the notes on PMP® Exam is about Project Human Resources Management, one of the knowledge areas required for the PMP® exam. It is based on chapter 7 of PMBOK® Guide 5th Edition. The following is a summary or a checklist of what you should know for the Project Human Resources Management knowledge area. If you would like to learn the tips and tricks for the PMP® exam, do check out my PMP® exam and certification journey here.

  • Sexism, racism or other discrimination should never be tolerated, no matter what the circumstances. You must separate your team from discriminatory practices, even if those practices are normal in the country where you’re working.

Article Highlights

Plan Human Resource Management

  • plan to organize and lead the project team
  • include roles and responsibilities (identify resources that can take up the responsibilities) as documented (ownership of deliverables) in RAM in the form of RACI chart (matrix) or in a chart/text form, org charts – an organizational breakdown structure (OBS) and staffing management plan – staff acquisition, release, resource calendar, resource histogram, training, rewards, compliance & safety requirements
  • The OBS displays organizational relationships and then uses them for assigning work to resources in a project (WBS)
  • networking is useful in understanding skills of individuals and the political and interpersonal factors within the organization
  • org chart indicated the reporting structure of the project

What is a RACI chart / RACI matrix or RACI graph?

  • The four letters of RACI stands for:
    • Responsible – Which project member is responsible for carrying out the execution of the task?
    • Accountable – The Project member who is held accountable for the tasks and be given the authority to make decisions? In general, there should only be 1 member accountable for the project task.
    • Consulted – The stakeholders that should be consulted for the work or be included in the decision making (to be engaged in two-way communication).
    • Informed – Who should be informed of the decisions or progresses of the work by means of email updates, progress reports, etc. (one-way communication)?
  • The RACI chart is a tool for tracking the tools for tracking the roles and responsibilities of project members for specific project tasks during project execution.
  • While there can be unlimited number of members responsible for the execution of a project task, there should only be one member accountable for the same task. Fixing the accountability to a single person will allow the project team members to know which person to go to should they need to know the progresses or details of the task. This can also avoid the false assumption that the other person (if there are more than one accountable) accountable for the task has taken care of the task but in the end no one has looked after the task.
  • The member responsible and accountable can be the same for small tasks.
  • Below is an example of the RACI chart for a website project:
Project ManagerGraphic DesignerCopywriterCoder
Logo DesignARC
Web CopyCA R
Web CodingA CR

Acquire Project Team

  • to acquire the final project team
  • pre-assignment is the selection of certain team members in advance
  • acquisition is to acquire resources from outside through hiring consultants or subcontracting
  • includes bringing on contractors / consultants
  • halo effect: a cognitive bias (if he is good at one thing, he will be good at everything)
  • Multi-criteria Decision Analysis: to select team members based on a no. of factors: availability, cost, experience, ability, knowledge, skills, attitude, etc.
  • training is usually paid for by the organization, not project

Develop Project Team

  • enhancing and improving overall team performance
  • offer feedback, support, engage team members, manage conflicts, facilitate cooperation
  • cross-train people
  • team performance assessments : assess team performance as a whole vs project performance appraisals: individual performance
  • training cost can be set within the project budget or supported by the organization
  • PM Authority: legitimate (assigned in project charter), reward, penalty, expert (need to be earned), referent (charisma and likable, or ally with people with higher power), representative (elected as representative)
  • Expert > Reward are best forms of power. Penalty is worst.
  • Tuckman Model: Forming – Stroming – Norming – Performing – Adjourning
  • cultural difference should be considered when determining award and recognition
  • recognition should focus on win-win reward for the team (NOT competitive-based)
  • team building is important throughout the whole project period
  • Motivational Theories
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – personal needs (Physiological > Security > Social > Esteem > Self Actualization)
    • Herzberg’s Hygiene Theory – satisfaction (motivators) vs dissatisfaction (hygiene factors to avoid dissatisfaction but do not provide satisfaction, also called KITA factors e.g. incentives/punishments), hygiene factors include good working conditions, a satisfying personal life, and good relations with the boss and coworkers
    • Expectancy TheoryExpectancy (extra work will be rewarded) Instrumentality (good results will be rewarded) Valence (the individual’s expected reward), for a person to be motivated, efforts/performance/outcome must be matched – will only work hard for achievable goals
    • Achievement Theory – three motivation needs: achievement (nAch), power (nPow), affiliation (nAff), best is a balanced style for the PM
    • Contingency Theory – task-oriented/relationship-oriented with stress level (high stress -> task-oriented better)
  • Leadership Theory
    • including: analytical (with expertise), autocratic (with power), bureaucratic, charismatic, consultative, driver (micromanagement), influencing, laissez-faire (stay out)
    • Theory X – assumes employees are lazy and avoid work, need incentive/threats/close supervising
    • Theory Y – assumes employees may be ambitious and self-motivated, will perform given the right conditions
    • Theory Z – (japanese) increasing loyalty by providing job for life with focus on well-being of employee (on and off job), produces high productivity and morale
    • Situational Continuum Leadership – directing/telling > coaching/selling (manager define the work) > supporting/participating (subordinate define the work) > delegating according to maturity/capability of the subordinate

Manage Project Team

  • track team member performance, provide feedback, resolve issues
  • when managed properly, differences of opinion can lead to increased creativity and better decision making
  • issue log is fed from Manage Stakeholder Engagement – used to understand who is responsible for resolving specific issues
  • conflict management: conflicts force a search for alternatives, need openness, not personal, focus on present and future
  • conflicts: schedule, project priority, resources, technical opinions, administrative overhead (too much administration work), cost, personality
  • conflict resolution
    • collaborate/problem solve[confrontation of problem] (best)
    • compromise/reconcile (give-and-take, temporary/partially resolve)
    • force/direct (worst/short-lived)
    • smooth/accommodate (emphasis common grounds and avoid/touch lightly the disagreements for harmony/relationship)
    • withdraw/avoid (other leads to lose-lose)
  • compromise is lose-lose
  • Forcing would only provide a temporary solution
  • Award decisions are made during the process of project performance appraisals
  • monitoring and controlling is typically performed by functional managers/HR for functional org

Reference

 


PMP® Study Notes for PMP® Exam from 26 March 2018 onwards

 

 

 

Introduction: This part of the PMP® exam study notes (updated for new PMP® Exam 2018) is based on Section 9 of new PMBOK® Guide 6th Edition. The study notes have been rewritten to reflect the latest changes in the PMBOK® Guide for the new PMP® Exam. More information on my PMP® certification exam preparation can be found at my PMP® exam and certification journey (with free PMP® study resources and tips) here.

Please note that the study notes below is intended to include only the most important or esaily confused PMP® concepts. It is by no means complete in the sense that one can rely on it to be fully prepared for the PMP® Exam. Aspirants are advised to make use of this piece of study notes for revision purposes. Wish you PMP® success!

Project Resource Management

Formerly the “Project Human Resource Management”  Knowledge Area as in the PMBOK® Guide 5th Edition the “Project Resource Management” (as updated in PMBOK® Guide 6th Edition) reflects more closely what the Project Manager is required to manage — all the project resources in addition to human resource.

  • Important: Sexism, racism or other discrimination should never be tolerated, no matter what the circumstances. You must separate your team from discriminatory practices, even if those practices are normal in the country where you’re working <= This is required for the PMI and PMP® Exam

Plan Human Resource Management (formerly Plan Human Resource Management)


  • Inputs: Project Charter, Project Management Plan, Project Documents, EEF, OPA
  • Tools & Techniques: Expert Judgement, Data Representation, Organization Theory, Meetings
  • Outputs: Resource Management Plan, Team Charter, Project Documents Update

  • The Human Resource Management Plan is to organize and lead the project team as well as other resources
    • include roles and responsibilities (identify resources that can take up the responsibilities) as documented (ownership of deliverables) in RAM in the form of RACI chart (matrix) or in a chart/text form, org charts – an organizational breakdown structure (OBS) and staffing management plan – staff acquisition, release, resource calendar, resource histogram, training, rewards, compliance & safety requirements
  • networking is useful in understanding skills of individuals and the political and interpersonal factors within the organization
  • Data Representation techniques:
    • Hierarchical-type charts
      • Work breakdown structures (WBS)
      • Organizational breakdown structure (OBS) — the OBS displays organizational relationships and then uses them for assigning work to resources in a project (WBS); the org chart also indicates the reporting structure of the project
      • Resource breakdown structure (RBS)
      • RACI chart
    • Assignment matrix
    • Text-oriented formats
  • The Team Charter is the document documenting team values, agreements and operating guidelines to create a favourable culture for the project team members.

What is a RACI chart / RACI matrix or RACI graph?

  • The four letters of RACI stands for:
    • Responsible – Which project member is responsible for carrying out the execution of the task?
    • Accountable – The Project member who is held accountable for the tasks and be given the authority to make decisions? In general, there should only be 1 member accountable for the project task.
    • Consulted – The stakeholders that should be consulted for the work or be included in the decision making (to be engaged in two-way communication).
    • Informed – Who should be informed of the decisions or progress of the work by means of email updates, progress reports, etc. (one-way communication)?
  • The RACI chart is a tool for tracking the tools for tracking the roles and responsibilities of project members for specific project tasks during project execution.
  • While there can be an unlimited number of members responsible for the execution of a project task, there should only be one member accountable for the same task. Fixing the accountability to a single person will allow the project team members to know which person to go to should they need to know the progress or details of the task. This can also avoid the false assumption that the other person (if there are more than one accountable) accountable for the task has taken care of the task but in the end, no one has looked after the task.
  • The member responsible and accountable can be the same for small tasks.
  • Below is an example of the RACI chart for a website project:
Project ManagerGraphic DesignerCopywriterCoder
Logo DesignARC
Web CopyCA R
Web CodingA CR

Estimate Activity Resources (former in Project Time Management knowledge area)


  • Inputs: Project Management Plan, Project Documents, EEF, OPA
  • Tools & Techniques: Expert Judgement, Bottom-up Estimating, Analogous Estimating, Parametric Estimating, Data Analysis, Project Management Information System, Meetings
  • Outputs: Resource Requirements, Basics of Estimates, Resource Breakdown Structure (RBS), Project Documents Update

  • as a planning process
  • closely related to Estimate Cost Process (in Project Cost Management knowledge area)
  • Data Analysis includes:
    • Various levels of resource capability or skills
    • Different sizes or types of machines
    • Different tools (manual versus automated)
    • Make-rent-or-buy decisions
  • resource calendar spells out the availability of resources (internal/external) during the project period
  • matches human resources to activities (as human resources will affect duration)
  • effort (man day, work week, etc.) vs duration vs time lapsed (total time needed, including holidays, time off)
  • “alternative analysis” includes make-or-buy decisions, different tools, different skills, etc.
  • Resource Requirements (formerly Activity Resource Requirements) details the types and amounts of resources required for each activity in a work package.
  • The basis of estimates include methods, assumptions, constraints, the range of estimates, confidence levels, risks, etc.

Acquire Resources (formerly Acquire Project Team)


  • Inputs: Project Management Plan, Project Documents, EEF, OPA
  • Tools & Techniques: Decision Making, Interpersonal and Team Skills, Pre-assignment, Virtual Teams
  • Outputs: Physical Resource Assignments, Project TeamAssignments, Resource Calendars, Change Requests, Project Management Plan Updates, Project Documents Updates, EEF Updates, OPA Updates

  • to acquire team members/facilities/equipment/materials and other resources necessary to complete the project work
  • pre-assignment is the selection of certain team members/resources in advance
  • halo effect: a cognitive bias (if he is good at one thing, he will be good at everything)
  • Physical Resource Assignments
    • documents the physical resource assignments including material, equipment, supplies, locations, and other physical resources that will be used during the project
  • Project Team Assignments
    • documents team assignments including who the team members are and their roles and responsibilities
  • Resource Calendars
    • identifies the working days/shifts/holidays for each resource included in the assignment

Develop Team (formerly Develop Project Team)


  • Inputs: Project Management Plan, Project Documents, EEF, OPA
  • Tools & Techniques: Colocation, Virtual Teams, Communication Technology, Interpersonal and Team Skills, Recognition and Rewards, Training, Individual and Team Assessments, Meetings
  • Outputs: Team Performance Assessments, Change Requests, Project Management Plan Updates, Project Documents Updates, EEF Updates, OPA Updates

  • enhancing and improving overall team performance
  • offer feedback, support, engage team members, manage conflicts, facilitate cooperation
  • Colocation is considered the most effective and productive, should be arranged if allowed
  • training cost can be set within the project budget or supported by the organization
  • Communication Technology includes:
    • Shared portal
    • Video conferencing
    • Audio conferencing
    • Email/chat
  • Individual and Team Assessment includes:
    • Attitudinal surveys
    • Specific assessments
    • Structured interviews
    • Ability tests
    • Focus groups
  • PM Authority: legitimate (assigned in project charter), reward, penalty, expert (need to be earned), referent (charisma and likeable, with people with higher power), representative (elected as representative)
    • Expert > Reward are best forms of power. Penalty is worst.
  • Tuckman Model: Forming – Storming – Norming – Performing – Adjourning
  • the cultural difference should be considered when determining award and recognition
  • recognition should focus on the win-win reward for the team (NOT competitive-based)
  • team building is important throughout the whole project period
  • Motivational Theories
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – personal needs (Physiological > Security > Social > Esteem > Self Actualization)
    • Herzberg’s Hygiene Theory – satisfaction (motivators) vs dissatisfaction (hygiene factors to avoid dissatisfaction but do not provide satisfaction, also called KITA factors e.g. incentives/punishments), hygiene factors include good working conditions, a satisfying personal life, and good relations with the boss and coworkers
    • Expectancy TheoryExpectancy (extra work will be rewarded) Instrumentality (good results will be rewarded) Valence (the individual’s expected reward), for a person to be motivated, efforts/performance/outcome must be matched – will only work hard for achievable goals
    • Achievement Theory – three motivation needs: achievement (nAch), power (nPow), affiliation (nAff), best is a balanced style for the PM
    • Contingency Theory – task-oriented/relationship-oriented with stress level (high stress -> task-oriented better)
  • Leadership Theory
    • including analytical (with expertise), autocratic (with power), bureaucratic, charismatic, consultative, driver (micromanagement), influencing, laissez-faire (stay out)
    • Theory X – assumes employees are lazy and avoid work, need incentive/threats/close supervising
    • Theory Y – assumes employees may be ambitious and self-motivated, will perform given the right conditions
    • Theory Z – (Japanese) increasing loyalty by providing job for life with focus on well-being of employee (on and off job), produces high productivity and morale
    • Situational Continuum Leadership – directing/telling > coaching/selling (manager define the work) > supporting/participating (subordinate define the work) > delegating according to maturity/capability of the subordinate
  • Team Performance Assessments: assess team performance as a whole vs project performance appraisals: individual performance

Manage Team (formerly Manage Project Team)


  • Inputs: Project Management Plan, Project Documents, Work Performance Reports, Team Performance Assessments, EEF, OPA
  • Tools & Techniques: Interpersonal and Team Skills, Project Management Information System
  • Outputs: Change Requests, Project Management Plan Updates, Project Documents Updates, EEF Updates

  • in the executing process group
  • track team member performance, provide feedback, resolve issues and manage team changes
  • when managed properly, differences of opinion can lead to increased creativity and better decision making
  • Project Documents Input
    • issue log is fed from Manage Stakeholder Engagement – used to understand who is responsible for resolving specific issues
    • Lessons learned register
    • Project team assignments
    • Team charter
  • conflicts: schedule, project priority, resources, technical opinions, administrative overhead (too much administration work), cost, personality
  • Interpersonal and Team Skills
    • conflict management: conflicts force a search for alternatives, need openness, not personal, focus on present and future
    • conflict resolution
      • collaborate/problem solve[confrontation of problem] (best)
      • compromise/reconcile (give-and-take, temporary/partially resolve)
      • force/direct (worst/short-lived)
      • smooth/accommodate (emphasis common grounds and avoid/touch lightly the disagreements for harmony/relationship)
      • withdraw/avoid (other leads to lose-lose)
    • compromise is lose-lose
    • Forcing would only provide a temporary solution
    • Award decisions are made during the process of project performance appraisals
    • Decision making
    • Emotional intelligence
    • Influencing
    • Leadership
  • monitoring and controlling of the performance of the staff assigned is typically performed by functional managers/HR for functional org

Control Resources (New in PMBOK® Guide 6th Edition)


  • Inputs: Project Management Plan, Project Documents, Work Performance Reports, Agreements, EEF
  • Tools & Techniques: Data Analysis, Problem Solving, Interpersonal and Team Skills, Project Management Information System
  • Outputs: Work Performance Information, Change Requests, Project Management Plan Updates, Project Documents Updates

  • in the monitoring and controlling process group
  • ensure that the physical resources assigned to the project are available as planned
  • monitor the planned versus actual utilization of resources and take corrective action with changes requests (if needed)
  • Data Analysis
    • Alternatives analysis
    • Cost-benefit analysis
    • Performance reviews
    • Trend analysis
  • Problem-solving steps:
    1. Identify the problem
    2. Define the problem
    3. Investigate
    4. Analyze
    5. Solve
    6. Check the solution

 

Human resource Management is a groups of processes required to make the most effective use of the people involved with the project.

Planning, identifying, documenting, and assigning project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships to individuals or groups.

Human Resource Planning process is a part of "Project Planning Phase".

Acquire Project Team is the process of obtaining the human resources needed to complete the project.

Staff Acquisition process is a part of "Project Execution Phase".

Team Development process is a part of "Project Execution Phase".

Manage Project Team involves tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and coordinating changes to enhance project performance.


  • Concurrent Engineering: An approach to project staffing that, in its most general form, calls for implementers to be involved in the design phase. (Sometimes confused with fast tracking)


  • Functional Manager: A manager responsible for activities in a specialized department or function. (e.g., engineering, manufacturing, marketing)


  • Functional Organization: An organization structure in which staff are grouped hierarchically by specialty


  • Halo Effect is the assumption that because the person is good at a technology, he will be good as a project manager.


  • Line Manager: The manager of any group that actually makes a product or performs a service. ie. A functional manager.


  • Leadership Styles:



    • Directing: Telling others what to do


    • Facilitating: Coordinating the input of others


    • Coaching: Instructing others


    • Supporting: Providing assistance along the way


    • Autocratic: Making decisions without input


    • Consultative: Inviting ideas from others


    • Consensus: Problem solving in a group with decision-making based on group agreement




  • Matrix Organization: Any organizational structure in which the project manager shares responsibility with the functional managers for assigning priorities and for directing the work of individuals assigned to the project.


  • Organizational Breakdown Structure: A depiction of the project organization arranged so (OBS) as to relate work packages to organizational units.


  • Project Management Team: The members of the project team who are directly involved in project management activities. On some smaller projects, the project management team may include virtually all of the project team members.


  • Project Manager: The individual responsible for managing a project.


  • Project Team Members: The people who report either directly or indirectly to the project manager.


  • Projectized Organization: Any organizational structure in which the project manager has full authority to assign priorities and to direct the work of individuals assigned to the project.


  • Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM): defines who does what. The Staffing Management Plan defines when will people get added and removed from the project.


  • Team Conflicts: Conflicts in the team are caused due to the following reasons in decreasing order of occurrences.



    • Schedules


    • Project Priorities


    • Resources


    • Technical Opinions



    So the most common cause of conflicts in projects are issues related to schedules.


  • Problem Solving Techniques: There are standard conflict resolution techniques available to resolve conflicts. These are (from best to worst):



    • Problem Solving or Confrontation: (look at the facts, analyze them and find a solution). This is an example of win-win situation.


    • Compromising: (Find the middle route). This is an example of loose-loose situation.


    • Withdrawal or Avoidance


    • Smoothing (Emphasize the agreements)


    • Forcing :(Do it my way). This is an example of win-loose situation.



  • Project Manager's Power A Project Manager may yield authority over the project team in one of the following ways:



    • Referent - project team knows the PM


    • Formal Power - Power due to Project Managers position


    • Technical Power - Project Manager has strong technical skills in the projects domain.


    • Coercive Power - The project team is afraid of the power the Project Manager holds.



  • Organizational Theories: There are many organizational theories. Some of the main ones are - Expectancy Theory, McGregory Theory, Herzberg Theory, Maslow's Hierarchy of needs.


  • Expectancy Theory : People accept to be rewarded for their efforts. This is a motivation factor. People put in more efforts because they accept to be rewarded for their efforts.


  • McGregory Theory of X and Y : There are two type of employees. Employees of type X need to be always watched. They cannot be trusted and need to be micro managed. Employees of type Y, on the other hand, are self-motivated. They can work independently.


  • Herzberg Theory: Hygiene factors (salary, cleanliness etc.) if not present can destroy motivation. However good hygiene alone does not improve motivation. What motivates people is the work itself. The motivation factors for employees include responsibility, self-actualization, growth, recognition etc.


  • Maslow's Hierarchy of needs: There are various levels of needs for an employee. When a lower level is met, employee attempts to reach the next higher level. The maximum satisfaction is achieved when the employee reaches the highest level of satisfaction - self-fulfillment. These level of needs from the highest to lowest are:



    • Self-fulfillment


    • Esteem


    • Social


    • Safety


    • Physiology



  • War room: is a technique for team building. As part of this the project team meets in one room. It helps to create a project identity.