Assignment 1 Weight: 5% Minimum Pass Grade: 50% Each question is worth 10 marks. 1. Maintenance of calcium ion homeostasis is critical to neurological, cardiac and skeletal muscle function. Consider the roles of two hormones involved in the regulation of the concentration of calcium ions in the blood. Parathyroid hormone increases the concentration of calcium ions in the blood, while calcitonin decreases the concentration. Based on this information predict the body’s response to restore calcium balance if a person swallowed 100 antacid tablets made of a calcium compound in 10 minutes. Include in your answer the definition of homeostasis, the type of feedback loop involved and all of the components of a feedback loop. Answer: Homeostasis is the condition of equilibrium in body’s internal environment due to constant interaction of the body’s many regulatory processes. As these regulatory processes create a shift in equilibrium, dynamic feedback system will bring them back to the small range of condition that is necessary for life. The antacid (made of calcium compound) will increase the calcium in the blood, so in response the thyroid would release calcitonin (hormone that opposes the action of the parathyroid hormone) in an attempt to achieve homeostasis once again. Calcitonin works by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts (breakdown bone tissue which in turn lessens the amount of calcium in the blood). Parathyroid hormone would also be inhibited which would inhibit the further increase of calcium. The type of feedback involved is a negative feedback (the body will stop the loop once optimal state has been reached and homeostasis is achieved). The stimulus ( increase level of calcium in the blood) affects the optimal levels of calcium in the blood ( controlled condition). This causes the thyroid (receptor) to releases the hormone calcitonin. Osteoclast (effector) breakdown tissue and increase the rate of calcium deposition in the bone. Result includes decrease level of calcium in the blood stream (response). Once the calcium level reaches an optimal level, homeostasis has been achieved and negative feedback loop will stop. 2. Provide one important example (in the human body) of each of the following: a. a molecule containing ionic bonds NaCl-Sodium Chloride Sodium chloride is necessary to maintain body’s fluid balance, plays a role in muscle relaxing and transmitting of nerve signals. Sodium chloride also plays a major role as an electrolyte and is the principle ion in the extracellular compartment which includes blood plasma and interstitial fluid . Another role of sodium chloride is how it playa role in the electro-chemical gradient known ad membrane potential. Sodium absorption plays role absorption of glucose, water and amino acid. Another major role of sodium is seen in the sodium-potassium pump. Sodium is a crucial for the normal functioning of the pump. b. a molecule containing covalent bonds Oxygen-02 Assignment 1 :: Biology 235: Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 One of the main functions of oxygen is for body function such as respiration. Oxygen is required to release waste gas in the form of CO2. Oxygen plays a role in the metabolic processes. Adequate O2levels are required to support cell respiration. Oxygen is essential in energy metabolism (the sum of all of body’s chemical processes) and needed for growth, repair and maintenance of cells and tissues. Oxygen plays a vital role in cellular respiration (release energy that is stored as ATP that the body uses in different process as needed. c. a molecule containing hydrogen bonds H20-water Water plays a role in thermoregulation (through sweating to decrease body temp), homeostasis, and cell function and is vital for normal functioning of some organs. Water acts as a lubricant in some organs such as the lungs and GI track to prevent friction and to allow normal body functioning to take place Water is needed for some chemical and metabolic reactions by playing a role in the breakdown of what we consume (lipids, protein, and carbohydrates). Water is essential for transport of nutrient and removal of waste from the body. What is the function of each of these three molecules you have identified in the human body? Explain why each of these three molecules must have its specific types of bonds in order to perform that molecule’s function. A) It must be an ionic bond so it can break into positive and negative ions in solution, which becomes electrolytes. Sodium ion loses an electron so chloride can gain the electron, which allows the two to attract and form the sodium chloride. B) In covalent bonds, atoms share electrons rather than gaining or loosing electrons. This allows the oxygen to achieve stable structure through the sharing of the two electrons. C) Hydrogen bond provides stability and strength. Such bonds link water molecule together , give water molecule cohesion (tendency of like particles to stay together), which creates surface tension (influence is seen when breathing s increased). 3. Define mitosis and meiosis, and describe the differences between these two processes. Mitosis results in the formation of two identical diploid cells. First the distribution of 2 sets of chromosomes into two separate nuclei. Mitosis involves four stages: prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Mitosis also undergoes the process of cytokinesis (develops in late anaphase with formation of a cleavage furrow and ends once mitosis is completed). Mitosis is used by single cells to reproduce. Meiosis is involved in sexual reproduction. Meiosis is a process that produces haploid gametes cells and occurs in two successive stages. This process consists of two nuclear divisions called meiosis 1 and meiosis 2. In meiosis 1, homologous chromosomes undergo synapsis and crossing over, which results in genetically different offspring. Generally meiosis 1 begins with diploid starting cells and ends with two cells each with haploid number of chromosomes. Meiosis one results in two unlike haploid cells. Meiosis 1 like mitosis also includes the same 4 stages. 2nd stage of meiosis also includes 4 stages as well, similar to those of mitosis and meiosis 2. 4. List the skin glands and write details about their functions. What would be the consequences if a person’s skin glands stopped functioning? Assignment 1 :: Biology 235: Human Anatomy and Physiology 2 Sebaceous (Oil) Gland Sebaceous glands are found in the lips, groin, penis, labia majora and tarsal glands of the eyelid. Sebum secretion consists of a mixture of cholesterol, protein, inorganic salts and triglycerides. It also plays a role in preventing hair from drying out, prevents water loss from the skin, keeps skin soft, inhibits growth or some bacteria. Some of the consequences that may be experience if this gland stopped working would include alteration in temperatures (as the gland isn’t able to prevent water loss), skin becomes dry and flaky, and potential for bacteria growth. Ceruminous Gland Ceruminous gland is found in the external auditory canal and produces a waxy lubricating secretion (Cerumen). It plays a role in preventing entrance of foreign bodies, prevents microbes from entering cells and waterproofs the canal. Consequences of this gland not functioning are entering of microbes, water and foreign object entering the ear canal, which could lead to ear damage. Sudiriferous Glands Sudoriferous gland is also knows as sweat gland. Cells of this gland releases perspiration into hair follicle or skin surface. There are 2 main type of sweat gland depending on structure and secretion. Waste buildup and increase body temperature (from lack of perspiration) are some of the consequences if this sweat gland stops functioning. The first is Eccrine gland. Eccrine gland is found throughout the skin. Perspiration consist of water, ions( NA, CL, Urea, Uric acid, ammonia, amino acid, glucose and lactic acid). Through perspiration, eccrine gland plays a role in regulating body’s temperature, removing waste. Second gland is apocrine gland. Apocrine gland is usually found in the axillae, groin, areola, bearded region of the face, clitoris and labia minora. Secretions released are the same as eccrine gland with the addition of lipids and proteins. Mammary Gland Mammary gland is a modified sweat gland that produces milk. The function of mammary gland is synthesis, secretion and ejection of milk (lactation). Consequences as a result of this gland not working includes lack of production of milk, resulting in lack of breastfeeding and the need for formula supplementation. 5. Describe how the structures of the epidermis allow it to provide immediate and indirect protection to underlying tissues. The epidermis is made up of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, allowing the epidermis to be play a role in protection of skin from dehydration, UV ray damage and foreign objects. The epidermis is made up of four different types of cells that play a role in the function of the epidermis. Such cells include: keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans and merkel cells. Keratinocytes of course produce keratin ( helps protect the skin and underlying tissue from heat, abrasion, microbes and chemicals). It also produces lamellar granules (releases water repellent sealant that decreases water entry and also inhibits entry of foreign material). Melanocytes produce melanin (responsible for skin color and provides protection against damaging UV radiation). Langerhans cell play a role in immunity. Major role of these cells is to assist immune cells in recognizing microbes and to destroy those invading microbes. Merkel cells are located in the deepest layer of epidermis where that contact disc that can detect touch ( Merkel disc). There are places on the body that have thin skin and some that have thick skin, depending on the amount of friction at the certain area. Thin skin contains four layers( stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum and stratum corneum) and is found all over the body. Thick skin contains five layers, all of the Assignment 1 :: Biology 235: Human Anatomy and Physiology 3 ones that think skin contains, with the addition of stratum lucidum. Stratum lucidum contains keratin. Thick skin is found on areas of the body that are exposed to lots of friction such as the fingertips, palms, and soles of the feet. A callus also help protect the skin as it thickens the skin by adding extra keratin to area exposed to extensive amount of friction. 6. Fill in the words or phrases that best complete each of the following sentences. a. Functions of the skeletal system include support, protection, assisting in movement, mineral homeostasis, and blood cell production and triglyceride storage. b. The hollow space inside of long bones that is lined with endosteum and filled with yellow marrow is the medullar cavity. c. The protein that provides flexibility and tensile strength to bone is collagen. d. compact bone tissue is organized into concentric rings of bone tissue, which are called osteons or haverisan system . e. nerves accompany blood vessels within bone tissue; the periosteum is enriched with sensory neurons. f. Ossification may also be called osteogenisis; in an embryo, it begins with the organization of mesenchyme tissue into the general shape of bones. g. Intramembranous ossification occurs between fibrous connective tissue sheet-like layers that resemble membranes. h. Activity of the epiphyseal plate causes the diaphysis region of a bone to grow in length. i. Human growth hormone (HGF), IGFs, insulin and T3/T4 are the primary stimulators of bone growth before puberty. j. calcitriol is the hormone that inhibits the effects of parathyroid hormone. 7. Match the items in column A with the descriptions in column B to create the BEST MATCHES. Items in column A can be used more than once when making matches to column B. However, there is only one correct answer for each blank space. Column A Column B a. articular cartilage X raises blood Ca2+ levels by increasing osteoclast activity and blocking kidney secretion of Ca2+ J struts or plates within spongy bone that assist in withstanding stresses in a specific direction F channels in bone matrix; allow osteocytes to communicate with each other D expanded ends of a long bone K occurs after development of ossification center during intramembranous bone development; occurs prior to b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. diaphysis endosteum epiphyses periosteum canaliculi lacunae lamellae osteons trabeculae Assignment 1 :: Biology 235: Human Anatomy and Physiology 4 k. l. m. n. o. p. q. r. s. t. u. v. w. x. y. calcification development of cartilage model development of ossification center development of periosteum osteoblast intramembranous ossification osteoclast zone of hypertrophic cartilage zone of proliferating cartilage zone of calcified cartilage calcitonin calcitriol foramen parathyroid hormone fossa formation of trabeculae C lines the marrow cavity E protects bone; assists in fracture repair W a rounded passageway through a bone that permits blood vessels and/or nerves to pass B shaft of a long bone P process where the bone develops from mesenchyme, often forming flat bones I structural units of compact bone Q bone cell that breaks down old bone matrix G spaces in bone matrix that contain osteocytes F tiny channels connecting osteocytes with the central canal of an osteon M occurs when mesenchymal cells cluster and differentiate during intramembranous bone development U inhibits osteoclastic activity A reduces friction and absorbs shock at joints that have a wide range of motion P the highly vascularized mesenchyme on the outside of the new bone that develops in the periosteum L does not occur during intramembranous bone development; must arise from mesenchyme template A part of a long bone that is not covered by the periosteum is covered by this structure 8. a. Match the items in column A with the descriptions in column B to create the BEST MATCHES. Items in column A can be used more than once when making matches to column B. However, there is only one correct answer for each blank space. Column A Column B 1. pronation a. 7 straightening the elbow joint 2. abduction 3. inversion 4. gliding 5. depression 6. dorsiflexion 7. extension 8. retraction 9. lateral flexion 10. circumduction 11. plantar flexion b. 15 moving the arm anteriorly c. 2 spreading the fingers apart d. 5 opening the jaw e. 11 bending the ankle joint so that the foot moves downward f. 13 moving a thigh straight toward the other thigh g. 14 bending the wrist joint so that the hand moves posteriorly h. 9 bending the head so that it moves toward the right shoulder i. 15 bending the knee joint Assignment 1 :: Biology 235: Human Anatomy and Physiology 5 12. elevation 13. adduction 14. hyperextension 15. flexion 16. medial rotation 17. eversion 18. protraction 19. supination 20. lateral rotation j. 10 moving the thumb around in a circle b. From the movements listed in column B, list the scientific names of the bones (learned in earlier chapters) that meet at each joint, i.e., where each movement occurs. Note: The spaces below require one or two bones of a certain region. Be very specific when required. a. Trochlea and capitulum of humerus articulates with trochlear notch of the ulna and head of radius b. Head of humerus articulates with glenoid cavity of scapula c. Metacarpals articulates with proximal phalanges d. Mandible articulates with zygomatic process of temporal bone e. Lateral malleolus of fibula and medial malleolus of tibia articulates with calcaneous f. femur articulates with acetabulum of pelvis g. lunate of carpals articulates with lateral styloid process of radius and medial styloid process of ulna h. anterior arch of the atlas articulates with dense of the atlas i. femur articulates with tibia j. trapezium of carpals articulates with metacarpals bones 9. Compare the organization and functions of axial and appendicular skeletons, and describe in detail the girdles of the latter. The axial skeleton is the central core of the human body. It consists of 80 bones, 29 bones in skull ( 8 cranial and 14 facial), Hyoid bone, 6 auditory ossicles, and 25 bones of the thorax (the sternum and 24 ribs). Their function is to protect the vital organs of the body, including the brain, spinal cord, heart and lungs. They also contribute to the support of the body and calcium homeostasis. The appendicular skeleton is made of the bones of the upper limbs and the bones forming the girdle that connects the limb to the axial skeleton. The Appendicular skeletons consist of a total of 126 bones. These bones include the pectoral girdles bones, 60 bones of the upper limb (radius, ulnar, humerus, carpals, metacarpals and phalanges), 2 bones of the pelvic girdle. It also includes 60 bones of the lower limbs (includes femur, patella, fibula, tibia, tarsals, metacarpals and phalanges). Theses bones are connected to one another and with the skeletal muscle (this in turn allows movement). The 2 pectoral girdle each consist of a clavicle and a scapula ( theses also attach the bones of the upper limb to the axial skeleton). The pelvic girdle consists of 2 hipbones that join at the pubic symphysis. Assignment 1 :: Biology 235: Human Anatomy and Physiology 6 The bony pelvis provides a strong and stable support for the vertebra column, organs of the lower pelvis and abdomen and it also connects bones of the lower limbs to axial skeleton. 10. Match the items in column A with descriptions in column B to create the BEST MATCHES. Items in column A can be used only once when making matches to column B. There is only one correct answer for each blank space. Column A Column B 1. contractility 2 property allowing muscle tissue to return to its original shape after contraction 2. elasticity 3. electrical excitability 4. extensibility 5. thermogenesis 6. endomysium 7. epimysium 8. fascicles 9. perimysium 10. tendon 11. myoblasts 12. myofibers 13. sarcolemma 14. sarcoplasm 15. sarcoplasmic reticulum 16. A band 17. H zone 18. I band 19. M line 20. Z discs 21. actin 22. myosin 23. titin 24. troponin 25. tropomyosin 26. acetylcholine 27. acetylcholinesterase 28. Ca2+ 29. calsequestrin 30. Na+ 31. myogram 32. relaxation period 33. twitch contraction 34. contraction period 35. wave summation 15 modified smooth endoplasmic reticulum of muscle cell; stores Ca2+ 5 function of muscle; heat generation 34 type of contraction responsible for most of the smooth, sustained movements performed by the skeletal muscle 1 property allowing muscle to shorten forcefully when stimulated by an action potential 29 molecule needed for maximum storage of Ca2+ in sarcoplasmic reticulum 10 formed by fusion of connective tissues; joins muscles to bones 24 regulatory protein associated with thin filament; binds Ca2+ 8 bundles of muscle fibers 11 embryonic cells; fuse to form muscle cells 16 region where thick and thin filaments overlap each other 9 connective tissue around one bundle of muscle fibers 20 sites delineating ends of sarcomeres 23 structural protein; anchors thick filament to M line and Z disc 19 site where support proteins hold thick filaments together 21 contractile protein found in thin filament 27 enzyme that removes neurotransmitter from synaptic cleft; helps muscle relax 35 phenomenon in which successive stimulations cause stronger contractions 30 ion that enters muscle fiber, causing depolarization and allowing muscle action potential to propagate 33 contraction of a single muscle following a single stimulation Assignment 1 :: Biology 235: Human Anatomy and Physiology 7 Assignment 1 :: Biology 235: Human Anatomy and Physiology 8
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It is the study of microscopic organisms either unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony) or acellular (lacking cells). For e.g. bacteria viruses, etc.
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It is the branch of zoology related to the study of birds.
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Our biology assignment help online experts define homeostasis as the ability to maintain a constant internal environment in response to environment changes. Homeostasis is controlled by the nervous and endocrine systems through feedback mechanisms. These mechanisms involve various organs and organ systems. To illustrate the topic further, our biology writers define an example, body temperature control, pH balance, water and electrolyte balance, blood pressure and respiration.
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