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The impact of international tourism on the employment generation in Gujarat

Every economy needs to identify various factors that can help them to generate more revenue and macro environmental factors could be improved immensely. Tourism industry is one of the major sources of bringing the foreign currency within the country. In today’s era the tourism industry has grown so rapidly and so many countries are giving adequate amount of consideration towards tourism development. There are mainly two reasons behind the development of international tourism one is that the country can make its presence at international platform and second is that it become easier to economic stability could be ensured as the tourism sector contributes hugely into the GDP increment (Conrady and Buck, 2011). In India also the development of tourism has been done so tremendously and it is just enabling them to bring improvement in their economic as well as social status. The benefits of tourism development is not only restricted towards the international reputation or revenue generation but it has its huge role in employment generation opportunities as well. Here in this report the tourism development of Gujarat has been taken into special consideration (Conrady and Buck, 2011). With the help of current study the impact of tourism sector on employment generation with the context of Gujarat has been identified. Further other states in India can also improve their tourism policy and most importantly the discussion has been took place to understand the tourism increment strategy of Gujarat state government. Another prioritized area within the report is related to identify the sector where job opportunities could be occurred after the development in tourism sector (Beaver, 2005).

Gujarat is one of the most developed states in entire India. The Gujarat has witnessed huge transformation in recent past into every industry and sector. The state government of Gujarat has ensured the parallel development of all the industries and various sectors. Thus the travel and tourism sector has also experienced lots of improvement and development. The unique culture and lifestyle of Gujarat state allow them to cater the attention of more number of tourists and they just focus on providing the most appropriate tourism experience to international tourists. Gujarat, having the tagline “Vibrant Gujarat” is one of the most visited tourist destinations in India. In 2009, Gujarat had provided employment opportunities to 2.14 lakh people as against that of 3.09 lakh in entire India.

The tourism development in Gujarat has been done in very systematic and structured manner. It is to acknowledge that it helps on the ground of identifying the areas where the tourism sector could be developed and existing tourism areas could be promoted (Cooper and Hall, 2012). The Gujarat state government has undertake their tourism developmental strategies in two ways; first they identify the places that has potential to be developed as tourist spot and second is to identify the place that already has huge historical significant and protecting those properties so that the visitors could be attracted easily. Next the Gujarat tourism board has ensured the diversity into the tourism destinations. The tourists can experience different kind of tourism activities in Gujarat and can improve their visiting experience within the Gujarat (Cooper and Hall, 2012). The basic facilities, road infrastructure, network of railways etc. these aspects are also appreciable within the Gujarat. The tourism development model of Gujarat is so dynamic and appreciable. In Gujarat every kind of tourism has been developed at very large scale and most importantly the business tourism, eco tourism, wildlife tourism and cultural tourism these are certain tourism types which are highly developed within the Gujarat. Vibrant Gujarat is one of the major strategies that has been followed by the state tourism board. It is tourism increment campaigns and in order to promote the tourism within the Gujarat the most promising and reliable strategy is that the brand ambassador of Gujarat is Amitabh Bachchan. They have put lots of efforts with respect to increase the travel and tourism sector within the state (Lennon., 2003).

The most famous tourism attraction within the Gujarat is wildlife sanctuaries, historical temples, Daman and Diu, Rann of Kutch etc. Every year state government arranges the fair in Kutch where lots of international tourists come and witness the heritage and cultural aspects of Gujarat. It is most popular tourism destination all around the Gujarat. Another most significant identity of Gujarat is that it is a birth place of father of nation Mahatma Ghandhi. It increases the reverence of this state and most importantly provides the international reputation as well. Thus it could be stated that the Gujarat state tourism board has make effective use of their potential and have utilized all their resources in well organized manner that has allowed them to develop the tourism within the state (Novelli, 2013).

The role of travel and tourism in employment generation is very huge. It provides the wide range of opportunity and people develop their skill set as per their competency in various areas. The spectrum of travel and tourism is so wide and it just related to the development of society as well. The travel and tourism includes the manmade sculptures to natural scenarios, education to sports, pilgrimage to adventurous tourism, staying to visiting, nature to wildlife, historical architectural to manmade buildings and giant structures etc. these are the wide aspects of travel and tourism sector. Thus to handle all these areas of travel and tourism there is need of human resource so it helps in generating the huge level of employment opportunities. People just require identifying the opportunities and having to develop their potential as per the areas. Thus there is positive role of travel and tourism in generating the employment (Sharpley, 2006).

Above all the discussion indicates towards the efforts of state government towards the tourism development but it is to ascertain that when tourism sector develops it foster the development in various other sectors. The development only in the field of tourism is impossible until n unless the government is not paying attention towards the development of various industries or associated components of travel and tourism industry. The major area associated with the travel sector is the hospitality sector and restaurant industry. It is clear that if a government is dedicated to ensure the visit of huge number of people within the state then they need to provide good accommodation and staying facilities to the visitors (Swarbrooke and  Horner, 2012). For the same purpose the hospitality sector needs to be developed at very large scale. There is huge requirement of ensuring the fact that the hotels are best source to show the infrastructural development. None of the state can enhance the development of hotels within their state until n unless the basic infrastructure is not so developed. It may cause trouble in attracting the international group of hotels (Swarbrooke and  Horner, 2012). The hospitality sector also generates huge revenue for the state government but it is also dependent upon the development of tourism sector. Thus it could be stated that the tourism sector and hospitality industry both are closely associated to each another. Another factor is related to the restaurant industry. Here two types of restaurants industry have been developed. The restaurants in India could be divided into two categories; one is those which have been handled by individual restaurant owners and other restaurants are food retail chains like McDonald etc. In Gujarat the network of this type of restaurant is also good and appreciable (Riege and Perry, 2000). However these are not highly attractive places for the international tourists but the local development could be represented very easily.

At the same juncture the role of tourism could be easily understandable within the employment generation into any region. The employment could be done in various ways but here in short manner it basically involves two types one is the direct and second is in indirect manner (Riege and Perry, 2000). The direct manner includes the hospitality sector, tourism guide, people who handle the tourists, local artisans, vehicle or taxi owner, aviation sector, people working within the restaurants etc. Now before understanding the indirect factors there is need of taking the glimpse about the linkage between various macro environmental factors. It is to acknowledge that in society none of the factor is independent or work independently. The variables are dependent to each another and are closely associated with each and every aspect of macro level environment. There are certain indicators which increases the level of tourism (Tsiotsou and Ratten, 2010). The major indicators are infrastructural development, local citizen’s literacy rate and most importantly the security factor. These are the aspects which also generate the employment opportunities. However these are basic need of society and are available in general assumptions but travel and tourism sector provide one more reason to lay down focus on these sectors. People must be educated and civilized then only they can deal with international tourists and can attract them. If the literacy rate is not so high then the importance of these aspects could not be possible to identify. Other indicators are improvement in the mode of transportation. The state government has developed their structure in proper manner (Stokes, 2006). The road as well railway connectivity is proper form all parts of the India especially the one which is known as remarkable tourist places. The airport establishment is also good so that the international tourists can reached to Gujarat easily.

The government provides the security to its people but in case of increasing the international tourism the standards of security measures needs to be effective and highly influenced by international standards. Thus these aspects provide the employment opportunities to local people and helps in improving their standard of living as well. Ahead the direct tourism involves the protection of local culture and heritage as well. Thus government provides protection to these artists so that the local culture could remain alive for the longer period of time. There is need of understanding the employment ratio enhancement from its root. It is an economical aspect and needs to analyze in proper manner. Broadly the development on travel and tourism generate the employment opportunity when government focused on attracting the foreign tourists (Tsiotsou and Ratten, 2010). The very basic structural development starts from developing the infrastructure of state. The major focus was given to improve the road connectivity and well roads have been constructed by the government. The railways connectivity was also improved and it just provides the work opportunity to lots of people. Once the roads and other facilities was constructed and designed properly then the special focus has been given to industrial development. Here at this juncture it is highly required to understand that the people might took the tourism as a leisure activity but now the trend has been changed into the travel and tourism sector. The business tourism is now days more popular as the globalization is fostering the high level of business development into various countries. Thus now at this point two areas has become priority for state government.

One is the industrial development and parallel to this the tourism development also comes into existence. The business tourism is possible when the industrial development is rapid within the state (Williamson, 2003). The Gujarat government has shown huge transformation on the ground of bringing the foreign companies and their manufacturing units at their land. It is most common element which increases the business tourism. The business delegates visits the Gujarat and it also provide lots of revenue generation opportunities (will be discussed later). But the business sector establishment provides the chances of employment opportunities at very large scale. The local person gets the employment and it improves the standard of living as well. The Gujarat is hub of manufacturing units and they understand this factor very well. It allows them to focus on business tourism and the travelling of people for business purposes in Gujarat also increases tremendously. Thus it is one way which can provide employment opportunity but it is not traditional aspect of tourism activity. Another factor which mentioned above is the parallel discussion of the development of cities and destinations those who have tourism development potential. It is to acknowledge that it is core activity which is directly related to the development of tourism sector (Youell, 2000). There might be lots of people and different department who were completely devoted for the development of those places and protecting their historical significance. Thus it also generates the employment opportunities to local citizens. So many people might give their time to reconstruct the historical places, the architectures and miniatures, the archeologists, the people who study about the significance of art and culture or the sculpture made on the walls of historical monuments and places. They all are people who also put their major contribution into the development of tourism sector. Thus the small initiatives of government always promote the international tourism and generate lots of employment opportunities related to diverse work fields. Along with these people the role of education industry is also significant. In order to increase the efficiency of people there is huge requirement of increasing the knowledge level and the government set institute that can provide education and spread knowledge into the field of travel and tourism. The set up of complete travel and tourism education department indicates towards the employment generation. Thus the role of travel and tourism sector towards the generation of employment opportunities within the education couldn’t be neglected (Waterton, 2010). Now days there are various professional courses which are completely dedicated for the students who want to pursue their career in travel and tourism. So here the role of tourism sector with the perspective of understanding the deep impact on the employment opportunities is clear in an articulated manner.

The professors prepare the students for spreading the epic saga of historical monuments and stories behind the establishment of temples. The pilgrimage tourism is very new kind of tourism which is actually developed in India at very large scale. In Gujarat there are so many temples and the state government has protected these temples and their history in effective manner. As per the different type of tourism activities diverse employment opportunities have been developed. As seen above that business tourism has developed corporate jobs, local artisans have got the job (not permanent), pilgrimage or heritage and cultural tourism also provides the huge level of job opportunities (Varum and et.al., 2011). Same wise the local tour guides are also part of employment getting process. The tour guides normally falls into two categories; one who get professional degree about tourism and other one who just know the history of Gujarat and its places. Thus it is another very significant type of employment opportunities occurs through travel and tourism development. As mentioned above that set up of manufacturing units involves the local people who put their efforts in construction process so it just provides the employment opportunities. However it’s a seasonal or temporary employment. Same wise the hospitality industry also generates both temporary and permanent kind of employment to the local citizens. The Gujarat government understood the expediency of hospitality industry. The hotels, resorts, food retailer chains, shopping complexes etc. have giant infrastructure and building development which also includes lots of seasonal employees and semi workers (Timothy, 2011).

Further the basic fundamental includes the development of aviation sector as well. Before ensuring the business tourism and hospitality sector the government is required to provide assurance for the development of aviation industry. If the network of airports is not so good then the five star hotels never establish their set up into any city. Thus this sector also developed within the Gujarat state and it also provides the employment to lots of people. At the same juncture the people belongs to small work like taxi drivers also gets the earning opportunities which is one of major earning source in tourist cities. Above mentioned all three sectors (manufacturing units, aviation industry and hospitality industry) have capacity to generate huge level of employment within any state. The common aspects are that these industries provide employment in same manner (Mehmetoglu and Normann, 2013). Next the education industry has also played crucial role in generating the employment or it could be said that it is another field or area that generates the employment in two ways. As described above that there are lots of educational institutes who provide study and degrees related to travel and tourism. But here the educational tourism is about to discussed. In foreign countries the trend has seen that they have developed their educational structure or curriculum in such a way that so many people is coming into the territories and they have just got increment in revenue generation capacity. In Gujarat also there are international level educational institutes where lots of students are studying. Thus it also provides the sustainability in improvement. The multiplier effect here work effectively that the impact of one industry could be reflected upon another industry and one industry is highly influenced any another industry (Anheiser, 2011). Thus educational tourism is another concerned area that has generated lots of employment opportunities (in both direct and indirect manner).

The tour operators are another kind of professional who could be successful only if the travel and tourisms sector has been developed directly. The tour operators are the one who deals with the tourism demand of tourists. They provide the package to the visitors and have tie ups with the different associations of travel and tourism industry. The tour operators are directly affected by the travel and tourism pattern of any state. In Gujarat the tour operators works in very structured way and they have full dedication towards providing the complete package to the visitors. It is to acknowledge that the major contribution of tour operators is to promote the name of any tourist destinations as it involves their earning and ensure the sustainability in their employment. They actually become aware to the tourist destinations or attractions, fair or festivals so they just include all those attractive aspects into the tour packages and attract lots of tourists. Now days the tour operators normally have huge level of establishment of their business so they also provide employment to variety of people (Bouchier, 2012). Some tourists operators have tie ups with hotels and aviation sector in order to provide services at minimize rates. It give birth to middle mans and agents who provide their services only to the foreign visitors. However this kind of employment is not stable as compare to the job profile of tour operators. The most interesting and conventional type of tourism is the sports tourism. In India cricket is highly popular game and it provides lots of opportunities to the people of India to generate employment. In Gujarat there are some international level cricket stadiums where the international cricket events took place. It also increases the employment ratio. Lots of people from different area come in Gujarat and spend their time due to sports tourism. However it just helps in creating the seasonal or temporary tourism (Lane, 2007). But in India the cricket is very popular which normally involves both domestic and national level cricket tournaments. The fresh example is IPL which is generating huge level of employment of the cities where continuous matches took place. However don’t have any team in IPL but still the level of sports tourism is appreciable due to the availability of international standards stadiums. It provides employment to lots of people who work inside the stadium or got earning opportunities during any match or tournament.

In Gujarat the most potentially developed tourism type is wildlife tourism. There are some good wildlife sanctuaries where the species of animals and birds found. It is another very attractive aspect of the tourism sector in the Gujarat. The state tourism board has protected all the wildlife sanctuaries in proper way (Chhabra, 2010). The promotion of these sanctuaries is also at its peak and people are aware with these wildlife sanctuaries. So it also fosters the environment of increment in wildlife tourism. With the perspective of employment the role of wildlife tourism is immense and appreciable. Lots of people are active in saving the animals and birds and putting their contribution to improve the level of wildlife tourism. Event tourism is one of the tourism types which is popular now days. In India various places are popular for different type of events. The most popular states are Goa and Rajasthan where the wedding related events took place due to the high level of heritage and luxurious facilities. The international tourism is also increasing in these states only due to event tourism. Goa is hub for international tourist as most importantly the wedding destinations are highly popular in Goa. In Gujarat the main event is Rann Kutch festival which has huge significance in tourism sector of Gujarat (Ivanovic, 2008). Organizing the vent demands various people who can handle the various activities in an event. Thus it is another type of tourism which provides the employment to local people. Like in Goa every year music festival generates huge employment opportunities for the local citizens. Thus it corroborates towards the accomplishment of objectives as above the areas and industries have been described where lots of employment opportunities have been occurred due to the travel and tourism sector. The job opportunities could be segregated in two ways one is based upon the industries and sectors and other one is related to the type of tourism. Further the impacts could also divide into two ways direct or indirect job opportunities. Above description provides the clear understanding about the generation of seasonal and permanent employment with the help of travel and tourism sector in Gujarat (Barron, 2008).

The situation of Gujarat is very good with respect to travel and tourism sector but certain recommendations have provided remarkable results in terms of improving the international tourism. The people have high level of opportunities due to travel sector development. But there are lots of opportunities which are still untapped and lots of areas which are needed to be improved at very large scale. The major sector is related to increase the competitiveness as against other states in India. It is essential to understand that there are various types’ of tourism activities and every state have command on various tourism type developments. The dimensions of tourism is not only restricted towards spending the vacations or enjoying the leisure moments. Now days the travel or tourism have some purpose as well which must be fulfilled by the Gujarat state tourism board (Rheede and Tromp, Blomme 2009). Now in India the major states which are highly popular among the international tourists are Rajasthan and Kerala and Goa. These three states have developed their distinctive identity among the international tourists due to their heritage and cultural pleasantness. Further different kind of tourism is more popular in different regions of India. Like UP has also registered significant amount of tourism activities and it all because of historic monuments and pilgrimage tourism. Most of the people visit Banaras and Agra to admire the beauty of historical monument Taj Mahal and visit Banaras to realize the spiritual tourism. It is another kind of tourism that could be developed in the Gujarat by developing the promoting the name of Somnath temple. Further Tamilnadu has also witnessed huge level of foreign tourism (Wong, 2004). Thus Gujarat tourism board needs to increase their competitiveness and have to be distinctive than other states. Further the element of education tourism is also required to be developed. There is huge level of potential into the educational tourism. The Gujarat government needs to establish more world level college where they can definitely cater the attention of foreign students. It not only brings the foreign currency but the more number of students can provide the employment opportunities to local people as well. In Gujarat the business tourism is developed at very large scale thus there are very excellent opportunities for the development of educational tourism. Tie ups could be done with foreign universities and more number of foreign students can visit Gujarat under the educational collaboration and knowledge exchange programs (Roy and Tisdell, 1998). Thus the educational tourism must be on the priority list of Gujarat state board and other states of the India.

The list of recommendations for all the states includes very common factor that every state is require to understand the major strengths with respect to travel and tourism sector. They need to identify that what kind of tourism could be developed within their state territory? It has direct relevancy with the development of job opportunities. Once the government is clear with their strength then they can definitely provide the trainings or can launch some training or awareness campaigns among the people who are active into the travel and tourism sector. They must get knowledge with respect to that particular travel and tourism type. It can increase their capacity to deal with the international tourists (Talwar, 2006). The training about the language could also provided by the government to the local people. At the same juncture it is essential to mention that there is huge requirement of focusing upon making the concrete structure of travel and tourism sector. The tourist guide should also get proper support from the government or other private companies. It can also help in generating more employment opportunities. If the tourist’s guides will get recognition from government then it definitely raise the employment level. Other than these recommendations, the state tourism boards have to focus on increasing the capacity of tour operators. As the tour operators are the one who gets into touch with international tourists for the very first time. They need to promote the tour operators or big tourist’s agencies so that the tourism could be increased at very large scale. If the tour operators will be capable of influencing the international tourists then the foreign tourism could be improved at very large scale. The tourist agencies should get proper growth opportunities and support from state government. Good liaising with tourism agencies can definitely provide more chances to increase the level of tourism (Bhatia, 2002). Ahead the tourist agencies can provide more information with respect to increment in employment as well. The tour operators understand the need and requirement of foreign tourists so they can recommend the particular areas from the visitor’s perspective where improvement could be done in an appropriate manner. Thus this factors provide chances to government to arrange all the resources and providing the job opportunities accordingly.

It is major factor where the role and responsibilities of central government increases immensely. They need to intervene into the state tourism activities and have to pass the clear instructions about the travel and tourism development. The instructions should be developed as per the international standards. The state governments are trying to attract the international tourist then the international facilities are also required to be provided. There are lots of untapped areas and regions where the tourism development potential is very high but due to the unavailability of the facilities the tourism destinations have not promoted properly. The awareness among the state tourism board is required. Other than this the departmental integration within the states is also required to be effective and proper. It is to acknowledge that the infrastructure must be proper if international tourists are the main agenda for any state. But it is not in hands of tourism board thus it depicts the role of every department into the tourism development. If the integration among the departments is not proper then it affects the tourism development in negative manner (Holden, 2013). Further the security is another crucial element for the tourists. The state boards have to work in integrated manner towards providing the security to international tourists. The Jammu and Kashmir is the best example of falling in the ratio of international tourists as the security measures into region is not proper and effective. Other than infrastructure and security the role of other local citizen also increases. They need to behave in civilized manner and have to deliver respect towards the foreign tourists. If the local people won’t understand their responsibilities then the efforts of government will be in vain. The cleanliness is another factor which determines the positive international reputation of India or any state (Holden, 2013). Thus the social development indicators like security, infrastructure, education, behavior and support of local people must be improve at very large scale just to improve the international tourism. Overall it could be stated that improving the reputation of whole India in front of world could provide chances for increment in international tourism. Further the states can try to bring international travel and tourism brands into their state and can allure the international customers as they are already familiar to those companies. Next the innovation into types of tourism activities is required. Private companies and individuals must be promoted towards the development and promotion of new kind of tourism activities. It will also generate huge employment opportunities for people. Above stated all the recommendations might reflect or provide the glimpse towards the increment in tourism ratio but it will automatically provide the employment opportunities for Indian residents (Rheede, Tromp and Blomme 2009). The states governments have to design the concrete structure of tourism development model that should set benchmark and become result oriented.

Thus with the help of Gujarat model it could be stated that they have set benchmarks in front of other states in India but still there are various areas where scope of improvement is required and Gujarat can develop various other types of tourism. With the help of above study it become clear that the travel and tourism sector provides employment opportunities in the area of hospitality, education, local artisans, teaching, busi9ness, tour operators and guides etc. In above study the recommendations have been made for both Gujarat state tourism board and at wide level for other states as well. Adherence to these recommendations can provide huge employment opportunities and standard of living could also improve.


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Tourism refer to the trips that involve travelling of people outside the place of their residence or work for leisure, pleasure, vacation, business, personal, or other purposes.

Tourism is an important source of income for many countries. Nowadays, it is considered an industry.

Tourism is important for the growth and development of a developing country like India. The advantages and disadvantages of Tourism has been discussed in this article.

Advantages of Tourism

Now-a-days, tourism is the flourishing industry. The advantages of tourism includes employment opportunity, growth of service sector, foreign exchange earnings, opportunity for recreation, economic growth, cultural exchange, better international relations, enjoyment, better health and wellness.

1. Employment: Tourism provides employment opportunity for local people. Tourism industry is growing very rapidly in India employing millions of people.

2. Growth of Service Sector: Services sector engaged in tourism sector get the most out of tourism sector. A large number of businesses engaged in service sector such as airlines, hotel, surface transportation, etc. grows with the growth of tourism industry.

3. Foreign Exchange earning: Many tourist destinations attract a good number of foreign tourists. This helps the country earn foreign exchange.

4. Recreation: Travel based recreation provides relief from the monotony of daily routine. A change in place and climate helps a traveler to recharge his mind, body and spirit.

5. Economic growth: Tourism helps in the development of economy of a country. It helps in the overall GDP development of a country. It helps the local people to earn their livelihood. The tourists spend lavishly during vacation. The local people engaged in assisting the tourists earn a good income.

6. Meet new people: It helps the local people to get in touch with the people and country. It also helps building international relations.

7. Cultural exchange: Tourism gives opportunity to people of various cultures to assimilate together. People belonging to various cultures meet together and understand each other. This gives them an opportunity to build respect for each other. Hence, it fosters cultural harmony.

8. Health and wellness: Many people visit other places for the purpose of getting treatment for diseases, improving health and prevent diseases. This is called Medical and health tourism. Wellness tourism aim at achieving complete mental, psychological and physical well-being. There are many tourism destinations offering yoga, aerobics, and other therapies for improving health and wellness.

9. Fun and enjoyment: Many people travel for fun and enjoyment. They simply do whatever excites them, or gives them enjoyment.

10. Spend time with families: The life of modern people is hectic. They are too busy in their professional life. There is immense pressure even on children. Hence, such people plan for a holiday trip to spend quality time with their families.

Disadvantages of Tourism

The disadvantages of tourism includes increased expenditure, time-consuming, environmental hazards, loss of architecture and ecological balance, increase in waste products, damage to wild-life, and disruption in socio-economic and cultural setup.

1. Tourism involves huge expenditure on part of the tourists.Travelling costs includes vehicle hire charges, hotel and resort rent, food cost, etc. This increases the overall spending of the person.

2. You need to take out few days out of your busy schedule to visit tourist places. Hence, tourism is often time-consuming.

3. Leisure trips are good for health, mind and body. However, hectic trips may cause stress and effect health.

4. It may also lead to environmental hazards such as environmental pollution due to use of cigars, plastic bags.

5. In order to attract more tourists and earn more profits sprawling resorts are built cutting down thousands of casuarinas trees beside sea beaches.

6. These resorts destroy both scenic beauty of the place by paying no attention to local architecture and ecology.

7. As a result of indiscriminate construction of high-rise buildings and infrastructure facilities, the provision of water supply and waste disposal facilities may get disrupted.

8. Famous tourist spots attract an inflow of residing population. This may lead to an increase in demand for residential houses, roads, and food for permanent population. Under such situation, an increase in tourist activities beyond certain level may adversely affect the economy of the state.

8. Overuse of natural wealth is a serious problem, tourist overuse of mountain trails resulting in abundance in dumping of waste products, food tins, etc.

9. Damage to wildlife parks is a visible phenomenon. The ground vegetation may suffer due to the tourists’ shoes. Food habits of animal impaired.

10. Due immense changes, pollution, and dirt, the landscape may lose its scenic beauty.

11. Tourism may have damaging socio-cultural effects. Local people demean themselves to earn more or imitate alien culture, new lifestyles, foreign culture.

Solution

1. Green Tourism: Tourism should be promoted with care. Once the natural beauty and human-made beauties are lost, tourism loses its charm and attraction and will collapse. The benefits of tourism will stay only if due care is taken for the longevity and survival of natural environment. So, today environment friendly or green tourism are being introduced by tourism industries.

2. Avoid Ecological imbalance and health hazards: We should keep tourism within planned limits. Every care should be taken to avoid ecological imbalance and health hazards.

3. Preserve local culture and tradition: Tourism must not play havoc with traditions and protected societies. New technique, high-teach communication may bring cultural setbacks, degradation to preserved communities.

Conclusion

Stability of nation is necessary for development of tourism industry. Political disturbances hamper tourism. India can reap benefits from this industry, can add to own coiffure, earn foreign money if tourists are attracted to Buddhist stupas, Hindu temples, Mughal, Rajput palaces, forts, and victory towers, rock-cut caves, elaborately laid our gardens.

Throughout our beautified country there are many thousands of attractions such as glaciers, snow capped peaks, lower hill stations, wild life sanctuaries, deep rain-forests, formidable desert in Rajasthan, sea beaches immense in number in east, west, southern parts.

Adventure sports i.e., trekking, skating, rafting in turbulent rivers, gliding, canoeing, mountaineering are other attractive attributes available here. Galore of cultural differences resultant in varieties of cuisines to please diverse tongues, textiles, artifacts, handicrafts pleasing eyes are other gifts.

Indian tourism is only a small portion of the world tourism industry. So, we must use all potentialities by proper planning, financing acquiring experience, packaging marketing, and boosting creativity, make outstanding appeal to travelers and seek help from private entrepreneurs.

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